Extended Timeline of World History


by Randall S. Frederick

After the publication of Chronology of Biblical Events earlier this week, I noticed an immediate uptick in online traffic and wanted to help readers contextualize events in recorded history by offering world events that took place in parallel to those recorded in Hebrew Scripture. You will  notice, by comparing the current timeline, provided by Marc Schulman of History Central and Newsweek, and that previously published on Theology & the City, that the events of scripture seem small and localized. The Bible, after all, is a collection of stories of events primarily concerned with the Jewish experience. However, finding the Jewish and Christian experience within history begins to “flesh out” scriptural experiences and illuminate those events only hinted at within their stories.

Let it be clear that what is offered here is comparative history, seeking to compare events across continents, to better localize the Hebrew and Christian religious narrative. Given that I am not a historian of world events, I welcome additions the reader might find which would better illuminate comparative, even global history, specifically and especially where it concerns religion.

Still, the astute reader will note leaps forward in civilization, politics, farming, weapon/toolmaking, and the human experience. These jerks forward are often explained by war and necessity, though not always. Karen Armstrong in her book The Great Transformation notes, for example, brings up the idea that during the Axial Age (from the 8th to 3rd Centuries), humans developed a spiritual understanding of the world that was very similar, despite great distances, the difficulty of translation, and contrasting worldviews. Individually, the major world religions emerge from these centuries – each focusing on ethical living and individual responsibility. A scholar of history, Armstrong re-examines the period, highlighting important developments. The Axial Age (from German: Achsenzeit) is a term coined by German philosopher Karl Jaspers after Victor von Strauss (1859) and Ernst von Lasaulx (1870) in the sense of a “pivotal age” characterizing the period of ancient history from about the 8th to the 3rd century BC. According to Jaspers’ concept, new ways of thinking appeared in Persia, India, China and the Greco-Roman world in religion and philosophy, in a striking parallel development, without any obvious direct cultural contact between all of the participating Eurasian cultures. The concept was introduced in his book Vom Ursprung und Ziel der Geschichte (The Origin and Goal of History), published in 1949.

Jaspers claimed that the Axial Age should be viewed as an objective empirical fact of history, independently of religious considerations. He identified a number of key thinkers as having had a profound influence on future philosophies and religions, and identified characteristics common to each area from which those thinkers emerged. Jaspers held up this age as unique, and one to which the rest of the history of human thought might be compared. Jaspers’ approach to the culture of the middle of the first millennium BC has been adopted by other scholars and academics, and has become a point of discussion in the history of religion.


ANCIENT HISTORY (Predating known civilizations)

  • 4.3 million YA (Years Ago)  In what today is Ethiopia, creatures labeled Ardipithecus ramidus lived, represented today by the nickname created by scientists: “Ardi”. Her species was either directly ancestral to humans or closely related to a species ancestral to humans. She was 1.2 meters (4 feet) tall. She walked on two feet – not knuckle-walking as gorillas and chimps do, but did not have arched feet like us, indicating that she could not walk or run for long distances. She had opposable great toes and she had a pelvis that allowed her to negotiate tree branches well.
  • 3.2 million YA  In what today is Ethiopia, members of the biological family Hominidae lived, represented today by the nickname “Lucy.” The angle of her knee joint indicates that she walked upright. She was 1.1 meters (3 feet 8 inches) tall. Walking upright improves the ability to run after game and to run from danger.
  • 2.5 million YA  Rocks are split into flakes and used as tools.
  • 2.5 to 1.6 million YA  A species called Homo habilis lives in what today is Tanzania. It is shorter and has disproportionately long arms compared to modern humans and is using stone tools.
  • 1.8 to 1.3 million YA  A species called Homo erectus has come into being and spreads as far as India, China and Java. (There are still disagreements about the Homo erectus classification.) Homo Erectus is to be described as the first human species to walk fully upright.
  •  1.77 million YA  Hominids (humans) in what today is the Dmanisi Republic of Georgia have a gum disease that scientists will think must have been caused by the use of toothpicks.
  • 1 million YA (or shortly thereafter) Creatures using stone tools exist in Eastern England.
  • 200,000 YA  Give or take thousands of years, Homo sapiens have come into being in Africa. They create what will be a fossil record of their species. They are to remain very rare in Africa for much more than 100,000 years. They will be described as having a greater part of their brain devoted to language and speech than Homo erectus.
  • 130,000 YA  The Eemian interglacial period begins. Greater warmth in the next 5,000 years will allow forests to reach above the Arctic Circle. By now another creature belonging to the homo genus (biological grouping), Neanderthals, exist in Europe. They are a species apart from Homo erectus and Homo sapiens. Throat anatomy suggests to scientists that Neanderthals could speak with complex sounds similar to humans.
  • 130,000 YA  The earliest undisputed evidence for an intentional burial appears, to be described in the August 2002 issue of British journal Archaeology. Neanderthals and the Pontnewydd Cave in Wales are mentioned.
  • 110,000 YA  Give or take thousands of years, the Eemian interglacial period ends and another ice age begins, but humans and the Neanderthal will endure.
  • 75,000 YA  Give or take thousands of years, people in Africa have begun to expand from the east or the south, to the west and to the north. Genetic evidence suggests that they will replace other peoples, except for the Khoisan and pygmy peoples. In density of population they will remain rare.
  • 73,000-68,000 YA  The Toba Catastrophe Theory holds that on the island of Sumatra a super-volcanic eruption created a volcanic winter that extended to Africa and reduced the world’s human population there to between 1,000 and 10,000 breeding couples. A mini ice age followed, lasting around 1,000 years. Where the eruption occurred a lake developed – Lake Toba.
  • 60,000-55,000 YA  The planet warms a bit. Ice retreats a little. Changes in climate will eventually begin to alternate between warmer and colder conditions, often in sudden jumps. Much of what would be Indonesian islands are a part of the Asian mainland. New Guinea, Australia and Tasmania are one continent, known today as Sahul.
  •  50,000 YA  Humans running from drought have left Africa, taking a coastal route to India.
  • 50,000 YA  Mating between Neanderthals and people called Denisovans introduces genes that will help modern humans cope with viruses. The interbreeding will embody as much as 4 percent of the human genome.
  • 45,000 YA Humans are in Italy, according to some scholars, reported in Scientific American (20 Aug 2014),”overlapping” with Neaderthals “for up to 5,400 years in parts of southern Europe, yet to a much lesser extent or not at all in other parts of the continent.”
  • 44,000? YA  Neanderthals in Europe on average are about as tall as contemporaneous humans, with around the same size skulls, suggesting similar brain size. Scientists will describe Neanderthals as highly intelligent, that in weapon making they were the first to use “dry distillation.” Their bones are a little heavier and they tend to have stronger arms and hands. Like humans they use stone tools. DNA studies will indicate that because Neanderthal and human genes are so nearly identical some interbreeding may have occurred between the two species. Genetic analyses will reveal modern European individuals as 1 to 4 percent Neanderthal genetically.
  • 43,000 YA  Humans are in an area around 500 kilometers south of what is today Moscow, their presence to be surmised in CE 2007 by archaeologists who have uncovered artifacts at what today is called the Kostenki Site.
  • 42,000 YA  By now, humans have crossed a body of water from Sunda in Southeast Asia to the continent of Sahul, including what today are called New Guinea, Australia and Tasmania.
  • 40,000 YA  Near what today is Beijing, human bones dating to around this year have been found. At least one person to whom these bones belong wore shoes. According to Erik Trinkaus of Washington University in Missouri, evidence also exists of some shoe or sandal wearing among Neanderthals.
  • 40,000 YA  Neanderthals “disappear from Europe” around now according to Scientific American, (20 Aug 2014).
  • 40,000 YA  Europe is first settled by humans around this time. (“Science & Environment,” BBC News, 7 Nov 2014.)
  • 30,000 YA  Homo Erectus becomes extinct. This species will be described as having used the same basic hand axe for more than a million years. Homo Sapiens, meanwhile, have been using the spear.
  • 27,000 YA Climate change has produced ice now at a peak in covering something like two-thirds of Europe. Hunter-gatherer societies “ebbed and flowed” according to Mirazón Lahr, from Cambridge’s Leverhulme Centre for Human Evolutionary Studies (LCHES). In other words some groups died and some survived. The ice was to start melting 17,000 years later.
  • 25,000 YA The last Ice age is reaching its peak. DNA comparisons will show that “Native Americans” are beginning to diverge genetically from their Asian ancestors. These ancestors are disappearing in Northeastern Siberia while those who will be called Native Americans are surviving between Siberia and Alaska on land that is dry as a result of low sea levels that accompanied the ice age. (See Scientific American, 4 March 2014)
  • 20,000 BCE (Before the Common Era)  By now humans are in southern Greece.
    18,000 BCE  People in what today is Hunan province, in central China near the Yangzi River, are making pottery.
  • 14,500 BCE  An ice-free corridor in Canada allows migration from Alaska southward.
  • 14,000 BCE  A melting ice sheet begins a rise in sea levels and warming in Europe. Rising waters have separated New Guinea, Australia and Tasmania.
  • 13,000 BCE  Rice is being grown in Korea. Father north, the land bridge between between Siberia and the North American continent begins to disappear.
  • 12,000 BCE  The epoch described by geologists as the Pleistocene has ended. The epoch spanned nearly 1.8 million years. The last continental glacier is in retreat, and for archaeologists the Paleolithic age – a cultural period – ends.
  • 12,000 BCE The epoch described by geologists as the Pleistocene has ended. The Holocene epoch begins through to today, the present. With the exception crossing a body of water to get to New Guinea and Australia, they have arrived in places by walking.
  • 11,000 BCE Stone spearheads and human DNA found in Oregon caves will indicate “that at least two cultures with distinct technologies … shared the continent more than 13,000 years ago.” (New York Times, July 12, 2012.)
  • 10,900 BCE Comet debris smash into North America. According to theory, it reversed the ice age thaw, and the recooling killed mammals such as the saber-toothed tiger, dire wolf, and the wooly mammoth.
  • 10,000 BCE Homo sapiens are the sole surviving creatures of the Homo genus – a species with a superior ability to plan and communicate. These humans have spread into most of the earth’s habitable places. Sparse populations allow for hunting game, gathering food that grows wild and drifting from campsite to campsite. Storytelling and myth are a major pastime.
  • 10,000 BCE In Eurasia and North America, the woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius) has become extinct.
  • 10,000 BCE People in the Middle East have domesticated goats and dogs. And people are starting to grow their own food.
  • 9,500 BCE Throughout the world, climates become warmer, wetter and more stable. There are perhaps five million people in the world, most of them hunter-gatherers.
  • 9,000 BCE 21st century academics mark this as around the time that the shift from hunter-gathering societies to settled farming begins. In the Jordan Valley, figs are cultivated, while wild barley, oats and acorns are being gathered. (See BBC News, June 2, 2006, “Ancient fig clue to first farming.)
  • 8000 BCE Hunter-gatherers in Southeast Asia begin growing crops to supplement their food supply. In the Jordan Valley in Southwest Asia, a walled settlement exists at Jericho. Mesopotamians are using clay tokens to represent agricultural and hand manufactured goods.
  • 8000 BCE Tropical monsoons are making the Sahara green.
  • 7600 BCE Hunter-gatherers are living along the Seine River in what is today the city of Paris.
  • 7300 BCE Tribal people in what is today Britain have domesticated dogs.
  • 7200 BCE In what is today Greece, people have domesticated sheep.
  • 7000 BCE In the Fertile Crescent, people are farming and raising animals. Their farms anchor them to one place. Gods are seen as settled into a temple and place.
  • 6700 BCE A man dies in the vicinity of what is now known as the Columbia River. In 1996 CE his bones will be found almost entirely intact and he will be called Kennewick Man. A projectile point will be found embedded in his pelvis, but his bone grows around it, indicating that he survived the wound.
  • 6500 BCE In what today is northwest Turkey agriculture appears, and cow herders are producing what will be tentatively considered the world’s first dairy.
  • 6000 BCE Farmers from the Near East arrive in Europe and transform the genetic landscape of Europe (See BBC News, Science and the Environment, 5 Nov 2014). Growing crops and domesticating animals have begun in southern and eastern Europe, including Greece.
  • 6000 BCE Agriculture is developing among hunter-gatherers in what today is southern Mexico. Along the upper Nile, people are growing sorghum, millet and wheat.
  • 5800 BCE Agriculture appears in what today is France.
  • 5600 BCE Sea levels have been rising, and – according to the disputed “Black Sea Deluge Theory” – sea water suddenly begins pouring into the Black Sea basin, flooding vast amounts of inhabited land and sending people on new migrations with stories about a great flood.


WORLD HISTORY 5500 – 3000 B.C. Egyptians Weave Flax Into Fabric, Horses Domesticated, Phonetic Alphabet, Bronze Made, Paper Made Of Papyrus Reed, Hieroglyphic Writing, Sumerian Civilization, First Medical Treatise, First Chariots, Egypt’s First Dynasty

  • 5500 BCE People in China are planting seeds.
  • 5500 BC Egyptians Weave Flax Into Fabric – Flax threads were woven together to create fabric for the first time in Egypt in 5500.
  • 5400-4900 BCE The first true farming communities appear in central Europe (German archaeologist F. Klopfleisch). DNA conclude that a closely related group of early farmers move into Europe from the Near East. They are distinct from indigenous hunter-gatherers they encountered as they spread around the continent
  • 5000 BCE The first metal tools are produced. Near what today is the village of Herxheim, in southwest Germany, as many as 500 men, women and infants are butchered and cannibalized – perhaps during one of the periodic famines that occurred in agricultural societies.
  • 4500 BCE Farming reappears in Africa south of the Sahara in the Niger Basin in the West. The Sahara at this time is grass and woodland with an abundance of rainfall, rivers, lakes, fish and aquatic life. People there are growing crops and raising sheep, goats and cattle.
  • 4400 BC Horses Domesticated – 4400 BC is the first time there is evidence of the domestication of horses. The domestication of horses provided an important new power of transportation and a new means of conducting warfare.
  • 4200 BCE Egyptians are mining and smelting copper.
  • 4200 BCE Around now the Sahara is beginning to become desert again.
  • 4100 BCE Y-DNA Haplogroup E1b suggest migrations have ocurred or will occur from North Africa to Sicily, to the northwest of the Iberian Peninsula, from Sicily to the Italian Peninsula and the Balkans. By the 21st century from 5 to 10 percent of Germans will share this DNA from North Africa.
  • 4000 The wooden plow is being used in central Europe. Agriculture has spread to what today is Britain and Ireland.
  • 4000 Some agricultural hubs have come into being in southern Scandinavia. A Danish science magazine, Videnskab, in the year 2013 will write: ” The people in these hubs had a different approach to the flint axe than the contemporary hunter-gatherers did. This indicates that the first Scandinavian farmers moved from the south and that it wasn’t local hunter-gatherers that got the grand idea to begin farming.”
  • 4000 It is hypothesized that in the Eurasian steppes, horses have begun to be domesticated.
  • 4000-3000 In Europe farmers’ genetic signature has become melded with that of the indigenous Europeans.
  • 3600 In southwest Asia, copper is being mixed with tin to produce a metal harder than copper: bronze. Around this time the Sumerians create a system of writing that is for enumerating – counting.
  • 3500 Sumerians have migrated to Mesopotamia and have taken over villages and the agriculture of others. Food surpluses are allowing a diversity of occupations to develop: soldier, farmer, craftsperson, merchant. Individual possession of land has been replacing communal possession.
  • 3500 What is today known as the Sahara Desert begins forming in North Africa. People flee from drought to the Nile River, where they trap water for irrigation and begin an intense agriculture in what is otherwise desert.
  • 3500 Settlements exist in what today is northern Israel.
  • 3500 In what today is Kazakhstan, people are riding, milking and eating horses.
  • 3500 BC Sumerians Develop A Phonetic Alphabet – The Sumerians were the first group to develop a written alphabet. Archeologists have discovered thousands of clay tablets with Sumerian writing cauneform on them. Most of the surviving records are of business transactions. The Sumerian writing evolved from an alphabet that was primarly pictographic (picture images) to one that became phonetic.
  • 3500 BC Bronze Made -About 3500 Bronze was made for the first time. Copper was combined with tin, which created a new metal that could be used in many tools.
  • 3300 A man dies crossing the mountain range known today as the Alps. In 1991 CE his body will be found and he will be given the nickname “Ötzi” (ice man). A Computed Tomography (CT) scan of his body will find an arrowhead embedded in his back that was unhealed, indicating it may have been a factor in his death.
  • 3250 BC Paper Made Of Papyrus Reed – The first known paper was produced in Egypt. The central pulp of papyrus reed was split, dried and glued together.
  • 3200 BC Hieroglyphic Writing – The Egyptians developed a system of writing known as Hieroglyphics in 3200 BC. Hieroglyphics told stories with pictographs.
  • 3200 BC Sumerian Civilization Begins- Around 3200 BC, a system of city-states developed along the Euphrates and Tigris Rivers. The Sumerians developed a loose confederation of the city-states. The states often fought against one another.
  • 3100 In the Fertile Crescent (an area which encompasses what is now Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria and Iraq), objects made of conch shells are imported from what is today Pakistan. Transport costs leave the items of trade exclusive to those elites who possess the wealth to pay for them.
  • 3050 BC First Medical Treatise – The oldest known medical text has been dated to about 3050 BC. It is known as the Edwin Smith Papyrus.
  • 3000 BC First Chariots – The first known use of wheels took place in Sumer by 3000 BC. The wheels were made of wood and were very heavy. They were used both for transport and on early chariots.
  • 3000 BC Egypt’s First Dynasty – King Menes founded the first dynasty of Egypt. Menes united Egypt into a single Kingdom, bringing together what had been, until then, two separate Kingdoms: the Lower and the Upper. Menes built a new capital for Egypt at Memphis, in the lower Nile delta.
  • 3000 In what today is western Finland, people were chewing a gummy, sugarless birch bark tar for use as an adhesive, but which also had antiseptic properties. It helped fight gum infections and chewing after meals helped fight tooth decay.
  • 3000 Among the Sumerians, democratic assemblies are giving way to the authority of kings. Priesthood is becoming distinct from working alongside others in the fields. Field labor is described as deserved subservience to the gods. Hardship is seen as a product of sin. People and animals are still sacrificed to gods. Floods are common and a story of a great flood exists. Trade and wealth are pursued. Competition for power between the kings of city-states produces wars of conquest. The warrior tradition continues with men dominating women. With commerce, cuneiform writing develops.
  • 3000 The Persian Gulf is a major artery of commerce. The ways of Mesopotamians are spreading to Egypt and Greece.
  • 3000 Writing has developed in Egypt believed by some scholars in modern times to have been derived from the Sumerians. Words and ideas but not sound are represented by the most simple of pictures – pictographs.
  • 3000 Egypt is united through warfare. There, human and animal sacrifices continue. Egyptians have many gods but Egypt has little rain and no myth of a flood. The rule of Egyptian kings is claimed to be associated with the gods. Kings are believed descended from the gods and more deserving than common people.

Ancient Egypt Pyramids

WORLD HISTORY 2900 – 2500 B.C. Egypt’s 3rd Dynasty, Great Pyramids, Egypt’s 4th Dynasty, Civilization Around Indus Valley, Minoan Culture, Dynasty VI Of Egypt, Sargon King of Akkad. Hsia Dynasty, Mentuhotep II Reunifies Egypt

  • 2980 BC Egypt’s Third Dynasty – The Third Dynasty was founded by Pharaoh Djoser. His greatest accomplishment, with the help of his architect Imohotep, was the building of the first pyramids. Imhotep was venerated by later generations of Egyptians not only as an architect, but as a magician, astronomer and the father of medicine.
  • 2900 BC The Great Pyramids Built – The Great Pyramid of Cheops at Giza was built around 2900 BC. It took 4,000 stonemasons and as many as 100,000 laborers to build the pyramid. The pyramid rose to a height of over 481 feet.
  • 2900 BC Egypt’s 4th Dynasty – The Fourth Dynasty was founded by the Pharaoh Snefru. He built the Pyramid at Dahshur. Snefru extended the reach of Egypt by developing trading relations with lands as far away as Lebanon. Snefru’s son Khufu (in Greek known as Cheops) and his son Khaefre (Chepren) were the builders of the Great Pyramids of Giza.
  • 2900 BC Civilization Begins Around Indus Valley – Indian Civilization began in the Indus Valley. Most of the peoples of the Harappan civilization lived either near or in the city of Harappa or Mohenjo-Daro. The Harappan civilization was a highly urbanized culture.
  • 2700 BC Early Minoan Culture Begins – One of the earliest known civilizations came into existence on the island of Crete – that of the Minoans. By 2700 B.C., the Minoans began to organize themselves into towns and establish a form of government. It is estimated that around this time Minoan civilization, on the island of Crete, begins – built by seagoing tradesmen. Rule is to be by the wealthy with a well-organized bureaucracy. Workmen will produce fine vases, sheet metal, tweezers, stonework and other artifacts. During this period, the Minoans used iron for the first time.
  • 2700 The Sumerians have expanded their writing, marks on clay tablets that represent syllables of their spoken language: phonological writing.
  • 2700 In the Americas, corn, beans, chilies and squash are among cultivated plants.
  • 2600 Agricultural people give rise to the city-settlement of Mohenjo-daro in the Indus Valley in what today is India.
  • 2600 In the Middle East, oxen are pulling wooden plows, cutting deeper into soil.
  • 2500 In the Fertile Crescent, the new imports are ceramic jars, copper tools and jewelry. Transportation costs make these items of trade too expensive for all but wealthy elites. Common people are still using stone tools.
  • 2500-2000 Farmers appear in what today are the Philippines and eventually in what today is Indonesia. They are said to have had the Dapenkeng culture style of pottery.
  • 2500 Around now, Bronze Age pastoralists from Southern Russia move into Europe’s heartland. A DNA study will produce a conclusion that the pastoralists will contribute to 50 percent of some modern north Europeans. Southern Europeans will appear to have been less affected by the expansion, this according to BBC News, March 2, 2015, which adds: “Most indigenous European tongues, from English to Russian and Spanish to Greek, belong to the Indo-European group. The classification is based on shared features of vocabulary and grammar.”
  • 2350 – 2180 BC Dynasty VI Of Egypt – During the course of the Sixth Dynasty, the powers of the Pharaoh decreased. The growing power of the nobility limited the absolute power of the Egyptian Kings. Piopi and Piopi II were among the longest reigning Pharaohs of Egypt.
  • 2340 BC Sargon King of Akkad- Sargon the Great rose from the service of the King of Kish. Sargon built Akkad as the new seat of government. Sargon accomplished what no Sumerian had done before: he unified all of the Sumerian cities in one centrally organized empire. Sargon also expanded the empire to include Persia and Syria, thus ruling from ‘sea to sea’. The Empire was further extended by his sons. Under his grandson Narmsin, the empire reached its zenith. The last of Sargon dynasty, Sharkalisharri, ruled until 2219 B.C., when Akkad fell to the Guti.
  • 2300 Indo-Europeans move into southern Greece conquering the current population and making themselves into an aristocracy over those who had migrated there many centuries before. These latest migrants are to be known as the Mycenae Greeks, who have gods similar to other Indo-Europeans, including a father god.
  • 2300 In what today is England, the stone monument Stonehenge is built. (Carbon dating performed in the year of 2008.)
  • 2250 The Mycenae Greeks are in contact with sea-going tradesmen, the Minoans of Crete – a commercial society ruled by the wealthy.
  • 2200 Troy, a coastal town in Asia Minor, known as Troy II among archaeologists (a second level settlement with numerous others to be built on top in coming centuries) is destroyed by fire.
  • 2200 A Semite to be known as Sargon the Great takes power in the Sumerian city of Kish. He conquers in the name of the Sumerian god Enlil and builds an empire across Mesopotamia and Syria.
  • 2205 – 1767 BC Hsia Dynasty – Civilization in China is said to have begun with the founding of the Hsia dynasty. Knowledge of the Hsia is limited mostly to a list of the seventeen kings of the dynasty.
  • 2200 The settlements in what today is northern Israel have been abandoned.
  • 2150 The empire of Sargon’s grandson, Naramsim, is overrun by migrating Gutiens. Naramsin’s subjects blame their misfortune on their having angered their gods.
  • 2150 BC Mentuhotep II Reunifies Egypt – After a period of strife between the nobles and the Kings known as the First Intermediate Period, King Menthuotep reunited the Kingdom under a new dynasty. During this time, the concept of life after death was extended to everyone, not just royalty.
  • 2130 Reduced waters in the Nile are accompanied by political upheaval. Instability within the royal families of Egypt have ended previous dynasties, and now an eighth dynasty of kings loses power. Two hundred years of political chaos has begun. Common folks attack the rich and local lords assume power independent of any king.


WORLD HISTORY 2000 – 1750 B.C. Third Dynasty Of Ur, Palaces At Knossos Built, Mathematic System, Cotton Used, Myceneans Arrive In Greece, Middle Minoan Culture, Amenemhet I Founded the Middle Kingdom

  • 2060 BC Third Dynasty Of Ur Founded (Sumeria)- Urnammu of Ur seized power from Utukhegal and founded a new Sumerian dynasty. Under his son, Shulgi, the empire of Ur extended as far as Anatolia. Like his Sumerian forbearers, Shulgi declared himself to be a god. During this period, an extensive building campaign was undertaken by the Empire. It was also a golden period for Sumerian literature. In about 1965 B.C., the Amorites overran Sumer and Akkad. Finally, Ur was attacked and destroyed, thereby ending the golden age.
  • 2000 BC Great Stone Palaces At Knossos Built- The stone palaces at Knossus and Malia were built on Crete at around 2000 BC. The palaces were designed to help keep the temperature as cool as possible. They also contained indoor plumbing.
    2000 BC Babylonia Develop Mathematic System- The Babylonians developed a mathematical system based on units of 60. They also divided a circle into a 360 units.
  • 2000 In the Fertile Crescent the use of copper tools has become widespread. There is a shift to a more scarce metal for use as money: silver.
  • 2000 Near what today is Haifa, Israel, at least two neolithic dwellers are infected with tuberculosis.
  • 2000 Another wave of settlements is about to begin into what today is northern Israel.
  • 2000 Give or take a century or two, Malay people begin migrating from the Asian mainland, across the ocean, to join others on Indonesian islands, bringing with them the cultivation of rice and domesticated animals. People called Mon migrate from Central Asia to the southern tip of Burma, where they begin growing rice. People leave the Mulucca Islands and migrate eastward to islands north of Australia.
  • 1950 The Sumerians have been overrun by Amorites and are to disappear as a recognizable people. Their writings, stories and gods are to endure. Sumerian language is to be what Latin will be in Europe in early modern times.
  • 1900 BC Cotton Used For The First Time – Beginning around 1900 BC the Harappans became the first to grow and wove cotten into fabric.
  • 1900 BC Myceneans Arrive In Greece- Around 1900 B.C., the Mycenaeans arrived from the North and gained control of Greece. This was the period of Greek history written about by Homer, and known as the Heroic Period- or Mycenaean Age.
  • 1900 BC Middle Minoan Culture Begins – Minoan culture reached its high point during this period. Great palaces were built at Knossos, Phaistos and Mallia. There was a central government. Minoans began trading with other peoples both around the Aegean and as far away as Egypt. There is some evidence that the Minoans successfully collected tribute from many surrounding peoples.
  • 1991 -1786 BC Amenemhet I Founded the Middle Kingdom. He reduced the power of the nobles and established a strong central government. The new capital of Egypt became Lisht. During this period, Egyptian art and literature flourished. The practice of co-regency was introduced during this era. The Middle Kingdom reached the pinnacle of its might under Amenemehet III.
  • 1950 The Sumerians have been overrun by Amorites and are to disappear as a recognizable people. Their writings, stories and gods are to endure. Sumerian language is to be what Latin will be in Europe in early modern times.
  • 1900 Egypt is united again, followed by the rule of Pharaoh Amenemhet I. Common people have failed to win political power, and local lords are subservient again to one king, but common people and lords have won recognition of having an afterlife like kings. And more importance is given by all to the goddess of justice, Ma’at.
  • 1800 Migrants in magnificent little boats reach Micronesia.
  • 1800 An Amorite king at Babylon, Hammurabi, extends his empire from the Persian Gulf to the city of Haran. He builds roads, creates a postal system and sees himself as conqueror of the world. Babylon is lush with agriculture. In the name of his god of justice, Hammurabi gives his subjects laws about mistreatment of each other.
  • 1750 Along the Yellow River (Huang He), conquerors start building what would be known as the Shang civilization, eventually to stretch four or five hundred miles. The main concern of the Shang kings is power. They take slaves and practice human sacrifice to please the gods they fear. Women are subservient to men. Shang kings claim to be descended from ancestors who reside in heaven. Canals are dug for irrigation.
  • 1750 A literate people move through Canaan, take control of some cities there, and then they conquer northern Egypt. They have horses and light-weight chariots and introduce the Egyptians to the wheel, new musical instruments, new techniques for making bronze and pottery, new kinds of crops, new gods and new weapons of war. The Egyptians call them Hyksos.


WORLD HISTORY 1800 – 1500 B.C. Shang Dynasty, Hammurabi Conquers Mesopotamia, Hyskos Dynasties, Harappan Civilization, Hittites Lay Waste To Babylonia, New Kingdom Of Egypt, Nubians Defeated By Egyptians

  • 1766 BC Shang Dynasty – The Shang dynasty replaced the Xia in 1766. The 30 kings of Shang dynasty ruled a largely agricultural society that was established in the Yellow River Plain from the mountains of Shansi to the Shangtung massif. The government of the Shang dynasty was highly centralized, with a king and royal bureaucracy.
  • 1792 BC Hammurabi Conquers Mesopotamia- Hammurabi extended the power of Babylon over all of Mesopotamia. He united all Mesopotamia marking the onset of one of the greatest periods in Babylonian history. Hammurabi issued his Code, the first comprehensive legal code ever created.
  • 1720 – 1570 BC Hyskos Dynasties XV& XVI Rule Egypt- Sensing the declining power of the native Egyptian dynasties, the Hyksos invaded Egypt from Syria Palestine. The Hyksos established their capital at Avaris and ruled as if they were Egyptian Pharaohs. But the Hyksos did introduce new ideas into Egypt. They taught the Egyptians how to make bronze and cast the material for tools and weapons. They also brought with them the horse-drawn chariot and introduced the composite bow into the Egyptian arsenal.
  • 1500 BC Harappan Civilization Taken Over By Aryans -The Harappan Civilization began to rapidly decline sometime before 1500 B.C. The causes are not known with certainty, but are believed to have included a changing climate that brought with it severe drought. The weakened Harrappans were quickly taken over by northern invaders known as Aryans.
  • 1595 BC Hittites Lay Waste To Babylonia – The Hittites, under the command of King Mursilis, combined with the Kassites to attack Babylonia. Together they defeated the Babylonian army. The Hittites plundered the wealth of Babylonia and returned to Anatolia, leaving the Kassites in control of Babylonia.
  • 1580 BC New Kingdom Of Egypt – The New Kingdom was established by the Pharaoh Ahmose. He thrust the Hyksos out of the Nile Delta in 1570. The period of the New Kingdom is best known as the time during which Egypt created an empire. Egyptian wealth reached unparalleled heights.
  • 1540 BC Nubians Defeated By Egyptians- One of the first acts of the Eighteenth Dynasty under Ahmose was the subjugation of Nubia. The Egyptians quickly subdued the Nubians and assimilated them into the Empire.

WORLD HISTORY 1500 – 1200 B.C. Egyptians Weave Flax Into Fabric, Horses Domesticated, Phonetic Alphabet, Bronze Made, Paper Made Of Papyrus Reed, Hieroglyphic Writing, Sumerian Civilization, First Medical Treatise, First Chariots, Egypt’s First Dynasty

  • 1450 BC Greeks Conquer Minoans- After trading with the Minoans for long period of time, the Mycenaeans conquered them in about 1450 B.C. The Mycenaeans destroyed the great palace at Knossos.
  • 1483 BC Battle Of Meggido – In 1483 B.C., Tutmosis launched a war of conquest against Syria- Palestine. The war culminated at Meggido in Northern Israel. There the Egyptians decisively defeated their opponents and became the dominant force in the area.
  • 1400 BC Iron Age In Near East – The production of iron was invented in Armenia. The people were subjects of the Hittites. The use of iron by the Hittites gave them a military advantage, and kept the secret of how to make iron a secret. The secret: raising the temperature of the iron in the forge. After the fall of the Assyrian Empire iron manufacturing was widely dispersed throughout the Middle East.
  • 1375 -1360 BC Akhenaten IV Pharaoh – In 1379, Akhenaten IV became Pharaoh. The Empire had reached the very highest levels of prosperity. But under Akhentaten IV, the Empire began to dissolve. Revolts broke out in Phoenicia and Palestine. The Hittites absorbed part of the Empire in Syria. Akhenaten and his wife Nefertiti pursued a new religion focusing on a belief in one god: the sun. This religion was not popular with the people, and after Akhenaten’s death, his religious reforms were renounced.
  • 1288 BC Rameses II Fights The Hittites- Rameses II fought to regain control of the territory seized by the Hittites. Rameses led his men to Kadesh, where a great battle was fought. Though the Egyptians claimed to have won a major victory there, the magnitude of that victory is unclear. What is known, however, is that after the battle the Egyptians reached a favorable agreement with the Hittites.
  • 1240 BC Philistines Established -The Philistines established themselves in the coastal plain of present-day Israel. The Philistines were nomadic warriors who may have originally come from Crete. They established five city-states: Ashdod, Ashquelon, Ekron, Gath and Gaza.
  • 1240 BC Israelites Established- The Israelites, after escaping from Egypt, established themselves in Canaan. The Israelites organized into 12 tribes and took control of the land through a combination of military victories and political assimilation.
  • 1200 BC Ramses III- Rameses III founded the Twentieth Dynasty. His capital was Tanis. Rameses rallied the Egyptians to fight invaders from the Mediterranean. The attacking forces were halted on land, and their fleet was allowed to enter the Delta where they became entangled in a giant net. The sailors were massacred and thus Rameses successfully held the Empire together. Under his successors, the Empire slowly declined.

WORLD HISTORY 1200 – 1000 B.C. Troy Captured, Second Babylonian Empire, Hallstatt Culture, Shang Dynasty, Nubia Independant, New Kingdom Dissolves, Collapse of Assyria, King Saul

  • 1184 BC Troy Captured- The Greeks united under the command of Agamemnon to attack Troy on Asia minor. The Trojans were besieged for a lengthy period before submitting to the Greeks.
  • 1140 BC Second Babylonian Empire Started- After an extended period of domination by the Kassites, a native dynasty arose in Babylon. Heading the new dynasty was Nebuchadrezzar (not related to the Nebuchadnezzar who conquered Jerusalem).
  • 1100 BC Hallstatt Culture- Iron was used for the first time in Austria. From Austria the use of iron spread throughout Europe. The first part of the Iron Age in Europe was known as the Hallstatt Period.
  • 1027 BC Shang Dynasty Vassal Tribe, “Chou”, Defeats Shang Dynasty – The tribe of Chou, under the leadership of Wu Wang defeated the Shang dynasty in 1027 BC. They established the Chou dynasty which became the longest-lasting dynasty in Chinese history. The Chou continued the central administration of the Shang. They included individual principalities called ‘guo’, the Chinese word for states.
  • 1090 BC Nubia Becomes Independant- With the breakup of the New Kingdom, Nubia once again become independent of Egypt. Nubia, otherwise known as the Kingdom of Kush, became a major trading center.
  • 1090 BC New Kingdom Dissolves – The end of the New Kingdom coincided with the end of dynasty of the Ramesids. Egypt entered a long period of turmoil and foreign conflict.
  • 1070 BC Collapse of Assyria- The Assyrian Empire collapsed under the assault of Aramaeans and Babylonians. The Assyrian Empire reasserted itself under the reign of Assurdan II.
  • 1010 BC King Saul- Saul, the first king of the Israelites, was killed by the Philistines at the Battle of Mount Gilboa. Saul was succeeded by King David.

WORLD HISTORY 900 – 700 B.C. Etruria, King David Captures Jerusalem, Libyans Rule Egypt, King Solomon, Vannic Kingdom, Cathrage, Greek Colonies Established, Chou Capital At Hao Destroyed, Rome, First Messenian War, Egyptian Dynasty XXV, Samaria Falls

  • 900 BC Etruria- It is most likely that the Etruscans arrived in Italy from Asia Minor as a consequence of the break-up of the Hittite Empire. The Etruscans came to the area north of the Tiber River, taking control, and forming a loosely connected league of cities.
  • 995 BC King David Captures Jerusalem- King David captured the Jebusite city of Jerusalem. Since Jerusalem did not belong to any single tribe, David wisely made the city his national capital. Under David’s rule, the Kingdom of Israel reached its maximum size absorbing many of its neighbors.
  • 945- 730 BC Libyans Rule Egypt- In about 945 B.C., Libyan settlers in Egypt managed to seize control under the leadership of Shishak, who founded the Twenty-Second Dynasty. During Shishak’s reign, the Egyptians attacked the Kingdom of Israel, and sacked Jerusalem. In spite of this triumph, the dynasty was racked by dissension.
  • 922 BC King Solomon – King Solomon reigned from 961- 922 B.C. During his reign, he consolidated the Kingdom of his father, David. Solomon instituted new methods of government and entered into a series of alliances to ensure that his Kingdom would remain at peace. Upon the death of Solomon, his son Rehoboam came to the throne. He was not accepted by many of the tribes of Israel, and they split off naming Jerboam King of Israel. Rehoboam remained King of Judah, the area to the south.
  • 840 BC Vannic Kingdom – The Vannic Kingdom was founded by Sardur I . The Kingdom included parts of what are Turkey, Russian and Iran today. It was able to develop in the shadow of the Assyrian Empire.
  • 814 BC Cathrage Founded- In 814 B.C., Phoenicians founded a colony at Carthage. The colony would soon overshadow the homeland and become an important world power in its own right.
  • 780 – 560 BC Greek Colonies Established- During this period, the Greeks established a series of colonies on Asia Minor. Colonies served as an important safety valve’ since there was not enough arable land in Greece proper to supply food for an expanding population.
  • 771 BC Chou Capital At Hao Destroyed- The Chou capital at Hao was destroyed by barbarians who came from the north. Their king, Yu, was murdered. The Chous moved their capital to Loyang. The power of the Chou monarchy was limited however. Anarchy was frequently more the rule than the exception.
  • 753 BC Rome Founded- According to legend, Rome was founded in 753 B.C. Its traditional founder was Romulus, said to be the son of a princess of Alba Longa. In truth, we know little about the actual founding of the city. The first settlement in Rome most likely took place on Palatine Hill near the Tiber River.
  • 736 – 716 BC First Messenian War- One of the first acts of the Eighteenth Dynasty under Ahmose was the subjugation of Nubia. The Egyptians quickly subdued the Nubians and assimilated them into the Empire.
  • 730 BC Egyptian Dynasty XXV Founded- In 730 B.C., the Kushite ruler Piankhi sailed down the Nile and took control of Egypt. Piankhi established the 25th Dynasty. During this time, many of the old temples of Egypt were renewed.
  • 722 BC Samaria Falls- After a three-year siege, Samaria (the capital of Israel) fell to the Assyrians. It is said that the Assyrian took 20,000 Israelites into slavery. Thus ended the Kingdom of Israel.

WORLD HISTORY 700 – 600 B.C. Ashurbanipal King, Assyria Conquers Egypt, Empire Of Japan, Second Messenian War, Assyrians Destroy Babylon, Nabopolasser Founds Chaldean Empire, Greek Lawgiver Draco, Ninveh Captured Assyrian Empire Ends

  • 668 BC Ashurbanipal King Of Assyria Conquers Egypt- In the later years of the 25th dynasty, the Egyptians opposed the Assyrians in Palestine. This provoked an Assyrian reaction which included the successful invasion of Egypt.
  • 663 B.C., Psannetucgys –a member of the house of Sais — drove the Assyrians out of Egypt with the help of Lydian troops to establish the 26th dynasty. This was the last period of independent Egyptian sovereignty until modern times.
  • 660 BC Empire Of Japan Established – According to legend, Jimmu Tenno invaded Japan’s main island Honshu. There he established himself as Japan’s first emperor. He founded the Yamato family and is believed to be a direct ancestor of Japan’s current emperor.
  • 650 – 630 BC Second Messenian War- The Messinians, led by Aristomenes, revolted against Sparta. It took the Spartans twenty years to fully subdue the rebellion. As a result of the difficulties encountered during the rebellion, Sparta reorganized itself into a military state.
  • 650 BC Assyrians Destroy Babylon -An attempted revolt against the Assyrians by the Babylonians resulted in the destruction of Babylon by the Assyrians.
    626 BC Nabopolasser Founds Chaldean Empire- The Chaldeans who had dominated Babylonia during the Assyrian period, took control of Babylon and established a new dynasty. The head of the dynasty was Nabopolassar, whose first task was the destruction of the Assyrians.
  • 621 BC Greek Lawgiver Draco -Athens was ruled by an oligarchy whose actions were considered severe and arbitrary. A nobleman, Draco, was appointed to create a code of laws. He produced a constitution for Athenian society with a major focus on crime and punishment. It called for death as punishment for all crimes. It did however, state that the power of the state to carry out the code originated from the people.
  • 612 BC Ninveh Captured Assyrian Empire Ends- Nineveh, the capital of Babylonia, was captured by a coalition of armies. The seizure of Nineveh was followed by the capture of Harran in 610 B.C. This brought to an end the Assyrian Empire.

WORLD HISTORY 600 – 500 B.C. Solon Becomes Archon, Nebuchadnezzar Takes Jerusalem, Pisistratus Rules Athens, Cyrus The Great, Cyrus Captures Lydia, Jews Return To Jerusalem, Cyrus Captures Babylonia, Persians Conquer Egypt, Darius, Darius Invades Indus Valley, Roman Republic Founded, Athenian Democracy Established

  • 594 BC Solon Becomes Archon – Athens was experiencing a period of social and political upheaval. To combat this, Solon, an esteemed Athenian, was appointed as ruler of Athens. He inaugurated a series of new laws to replace the laws of Draco. He canceled all land debts, outlawed new loans for which humans were used as collateral, and made other popular and successful reforms.
  • 588 BC Nebuchadnezzar Takes Jerusalem- In 588 Nebuchadnezzar’s Babylonian army breached the wall of Jerusalem, capturing it and destroying the temple. Many of the Jews of Judea were taken to exile in Babylon.
  • 560 BC Pisistratus Rules Athens – Following the resignation of Solon, Athens was governed by a group of leaders. One of them was Pisistratus, who made three attempts to seize power, finally succeeding on the third attempt. Pisistratus ruled with a firm hand, but was nonetheless popular. He engaged in large-scale building campaigns, and maintained Athens in an unparalleled state of tranquility.
  • 559 BC Cyrus The Great -Cyrus the Great deposed Astayges of Medea who had been King of both Medea and Persia, which the Medes had conquered. Cyrus had been at the court of Astayges. When he managed to escape to Persia where his father was king, Astayges followed with a great army. The army was many times the size of the Persian forces organized by Cyrus. Cyrus’ army was attacked many times. After each encounter, the Persians were forced to give ground to the larger Medean army. Cyrus’ father fell in one of those battles. Finally, as the Medes were camped near the Persian capital, Darius attacked. His surprise attack succeeded in defeating the Medes and enabled the Persians to capture the King. Cyrus then declared himself the King of both Persia and Medea. He was accepted as such by both peoples.
  • 546 BC Cyrus Captures Lydia – Cyrus next attacked the Lydians. Theirs was the largest empire in Asia Minor, maintaining alliances with the Egyptians, the Babylonians and even the Spartans. Cyrus approached Lydia and in Pteria fought the Lydian army led by its general, Croesus. The battle ended in a draw and Croesus, believing that Cyrus would not fight again until spring, returned to his capital city of Sardis, and disbanded a portion of his army. Cyrus followed and in a battle outside Sardis, Cyrus’ army defeated the Lydians and forced them into the city. Cyrus then laid siege to the city. His men were able to scale the citadel, enter Sardis and lay waste to it. Croesus was captured and the Lydians were now part of the Persian Empire.
  • 540 BC Jews Return To Jerusalem- Cyrus allowed the Jews who had been conquered by the Babylonians to return to Jerusalem after his defeat of the Babylonians. Cyrus’ strategy was to befriend local populations. The Jews were allowed to rebuild the temple destroyed by Nebbechadnezzar seventy years before. This gesture on the part of Cyrus resulted in tremendous loyalty towards him on the part of the returning Jewish population.
  • 539 BC Cyrus Captures Babylonia – Cyrus spent a number of years securing his eastern frontiers against invaders. In 539 B.C., he once again turned his attentions eastward. He attacked the city of Babylon. First, he defeated Babylonian forces outside the city. The Babylonians then divided their forces in two. King Nabonadius took his forces to Borisappa, hoping to divert Cyrus’s attention. The tactic did not work and Cyrus invaded the city. Legend has it that Cyrus was successful in capturing the city by diverting the waters of the Tigris river.
  • 525 BC Persians Conquer Egypt – The end of the New Kingdom coincided with the end of dynasty of the Ramesids. Egypt entered a long period of turmoil and foreign conflict.
  • 521 BC Darius- Cyrus was succeeded by Darius I in 521 B.C. Darius spent the first years of his administration suppressing revolts that seemed to develop in every part of the Empire. Darius then reorganized the Persian Empire into separate provinces called satraps, each with its own governor and tax system. Darius improved communication within the empire by creating a series of 111 post stations with horses similar to the pony express system developed nearly two thousand years later in the United States. It became possible to send or receive messages anywhere in the Empire within two weeks. Though Darius successfully quelled a revolt of Ionian Greeks in Anatolia, he failed in two attempts to conquer Greece proper.
  • 516 BC Darius Invades Indus Valley- In 516 B.C., Darius invaded India capturing the Indus Valley. He annexed it to the Persian Empire. His hold on the region was tenuous and lasted less then ten years.
  • 509 BC The Roman Republic Founded- 509 BC is the year that has traditionally been given as the founding of the Roman Republic. Junius Brutus and Taqrquinius were the first consuls of Rome.
  • 508 BC Athenian Democracy Established By Clesithenes- Pisistratus was succeeded by his sons, one of whom — Hipparchus — was assassinated as a result of a private feud. The other son, Hippais, responded with such oppression, that he was overthrown and exiled by the nobles of the city. Cleisthenes was appointed as ruler and enacted fundamental reforms that became the basis of the Golden Age of Athens. Cleisthenese divided Athens into 10 tribes, each of which was made up of a mixture of Athenians from all groups. The ultimate governing body of Athens became the Assembly made up of all male Athenians from all social classes. Each member had one vote. Daily control was left in the hands of the Council of 500, which was composed of representative selected from the ten tribes.

WORLD HISTORY 500 – 400 B.C. Grand Canal, Greek City States Revolts, Darius Navy Defeats Greeks, Battle Of Marathon, Buddha, Confucius, Second Invasion Of Greece, Naxos Tries To Leave Delphian League, Third Messenian War, Age of Pericles, Peloponnesian War, Hippocrates, Battle Of Cunaxa

  • 499 BC Work On Grand Canal- The Chinese began work on the Grand Canal under the Eastern Chou dynasty. The goal of the canal was to connect the Yellow and Yangtse River. Work and improvements on the canal continued for 2,000 years.
  • 499 BC Greek City States Revolts- The Greek city states known as the Ionians in Asian Minor revolted against Persian rule. Their leader was Aristagoras of Miletus. The Athenians sent 20 ships to help them.
  • 494 BC Darius Navy Defeats Greeks Off Lade- Darius’ naval forces were able to defeat the Greek fleet off the island of Lade. With the sea under his control, Darius had no problems in seizing and sacking Miletus. Darius put down the revolt and took control of Ionia.
  • 490 BC Battle Of Marathon – The Army of Athens and its allies met the Persians on the Plains of Marathon about 22 miles from Athens. The Greeks charged the Persian lines. Both sides fought hard, but it was the Greeks who were able to break the Persian lines. The Persians were forced to withdraw to their boats. The complete Greek victory at Marathon ended the immediate Persian threat.
  • 483 BC Buddha – In 483 B.C. Gautama Buddha died. He was the founder of Buddhism. Shortly after his death, 500 disciples met to further refine his doctrine and code of discipline.
  • 483 BC Confucius- At the age of 56, the Chinese minister of Lu Long Fuzi resigned. He spent the last 12 years of his life wandering China teaching morality, family values and statecraft. Lu Long became known as Confucius and, to this day, remains the most revered Chinese philosopher.
  • 480 BC Second Invasion Of Greece- Xerxes who seceded Darius vowed to revenge his father’s defeat by renewing the attacks on Greece. He led an invasion force of 150,000 soldiers and 700 naval ships. The Greeks fought a delaying battle at the Thermopylae Pass. Nine thousand Greeks under Spartan command held the pass for two days. The Persians managed to outflank the Greeks, however. Most of the Greek forces withdrew, but 300 Spartans fought to the death. Athenians then abandoned their city which the Persians promptly sacked.The Greek fleet was bottled up, in the Saronic Gulf. The Persians then tried to storm the Gulf, but became tangled as they entered the straits leading to the gulf and were destroyed.
    Xerxes then withdrew. The next year at the Battle of Plataea the Greeks decisively defeated the Persians and ended the Persian threat.
  • 470 BC Naxos Tries To Leave Delphian League- According to legend, Rome was founded in 753 B.C. Its traditional founder was Romulus, said to be the son of a princess of Alba Longa. In truth, we know little about the actual founding of the city. The first settlement in Rome most likely took place on Palatine Hill near the Tiber River.
  • 464 BC Third Messenian War- One of the first acts of the Eighteenth Dynasty under Ahmose was the subjugation of Nubia. The Egyptians quickly subdued the Nubians and assimilated them into the Empire.
  • 460 BC Age of Pericles- The Age of Pericles, lasted from 461 B.C. (when Pericles as a young aristocrat became the dominant politician in Athens) until 429 B.C. This was a period of expanding democracy at home and increased imperialism abroad.
  • 431 – 404 BC Peloponnesian War- For Sparta and its allies, the growing Athenian power aroused fear and suspicion. A series of disputes finally led to the outbreak of war between Athens and Sparta. Sparta hoped to defeat the Athenians in open battle. The Athenians, on the other hand, relied on their navy. Their forces withdrew behind the city walls, which Sparta besieged. Despite a plague that killed one-third of Athenians (including Pericles) the Athenians fought on. In 415 B.C., the Athenians attempted to capture Sicily. The attack was repulsed and the Athenians were defeated outside the city of Syracuse. All their soldiers were killed or sold into slavery. In 405 B.C., the Athenian fleet was destroyed at Aegospotami. In 404 B.C., the Spartans finally captured Athens and brought the war to an end.
  • 429 BC Hippocrates- Hippocrates was spared death from a plague that killed between 1/3 and 2/3d’s of the population of Athens. Hipocrates was the first to say that disease was not miraculous, or a punishiment from the gods. Hippocrates is best known for the Hippocratic Oath that every physician swears to.

WORLD HISTORY 400 – 300 B.C. Hsiung Nu-Dominate Mongoliat, Corinthian War, 1st Roman Roads Built, Battle At Leuctra, Philip II Regent Of Macedonia, Peace Of Philocrates, Alexander The Great, Battle Of Granicus, Battle Of Issus, Battle Of Gaugamela, Hindu Mauryan Dynasty, Ptolemy, Battle Of Ipsus, Euclid Publishes Elements

  • 399 BC Hsiung Nu-(Huns) Dominate Mongoliat- Starting in 399 B.C., the Hsuing Nu (known as the Huns) began to dominate the other tribes in Mongolia. Over a process that took nearly 200 years, they came to dominate the Northern border of China.
  • 395 – 387 BC Corinthian War – With the help of the Persians, Athens and other Greek city-states organized to challenge Sparta once again. In the course of the war, both sides won victories, but Sparta finally negotiated a peace with the Persians which was known as the ‘King’s Peace’ which ended the war.
  • 370 BC 1st Roman Roads Built- The Romans built their first road. The road ran from Rome to the Alban Hills, and was used primarily to carry military traffic.
  • 371 BC Battle At Leuctra -Sparta was defeated at the Battle of Leuctra by Epaeminondas of Thebes. This defeat shattered the myth of Spartan invincibility and ended Sparta’s hegemony over Greece.
  • 359 BC Philip II Regent Of Macedonia- Philip II became Regent of Macedonia in 359 B.C. He reorganized the army and made it one of the strongest in Greece. He was soon drawn into the quarrels between the various Greek city-states.
  • 346 BC Peace Of Philocrates -Philip forced Athens to accept a peace treaty with Macedonia, one which was very favorable to Macedonia. This marked the beginning of the end of Greek independence.
  • 334 BC Alexander The Great- Battle Of Granicus- Alexander the Great led a Greek army of 35,000 soldiers into battle against the Persian army led by Darius III at Granicus. The Persian army of 40,000 waited across the river of Granicus for the Macedonians who streamed across. The battle was hard-fought but Alexander’s troops gained the upper hand, and killed or captured half of the Persian army which was forced to retreat.
  • 334 BC Battle Of Issus- In the Battle at Issus, Macedonian forces under Alexander, met a Persian army, numbering nearly 500,000 men, under the command of Darius lll. Alexander attacked the Persian infantry in the center of the lines and achieved an overwhelming victory, decimating the Persian forces.
  • 334 BC Battle Of Gaugamela- Darius III and the Persian Empire made a final stand in October 331 B.C. at Gaugamela near Arbela in the heart of Assyria. Nearly 1 million men faced an army of 50,000 Macedonians under Alexander. Alexander obtained excellent intelligence on the disposition of Persian forces and was able to attack the Persians, disrupting their lines which resulted in a general Persian retreat. Darius fled the battlefield, was pursued and was eventually assassinated in Bactaria. The Persian empire came to an end.
  • 321 BC Hindu Mauryan Dynasty- In 321 B.C., the Maurya Dynasty was founded in India. The Maurya overthrew Nanda, ruler of the Maganedha Kingdom of the Ganges River Valley.
  • 321 BC Ptolemy- Ptolemy, ruler of Egypt, defeated Antigonus at the battle of Gaza. Ptolemy was supported by Seleucus, who went on to reconquer Babylonia.
  • 301 BC Battle Of Ipsus- Antigonus attempted to reunite Alexander’s empire under his control. He invaded Egypt, but his forces and those of his son Demetrius were defeated.
  • 300 BC Euclid Publishes Elements-The Greek mathmatician Euclid living in Alexandria, published a 13 volume work called Elements. It laid out for the first time the principals of geometry.

WORLD HISTORY 300 – 200 B.C. Ptolemy -Light House, Asoka’s Empire , First Punic War, Third Syrian War, Archemides Shows Value Of Pi, Sardinia And Corsica Annexed, Aritstarchus Of Samos, 2nd Punic War, Great Wall Of China, 4th Syrian War, 1st Macedonian War, Specific Gravity Discovered

  • 289 BC Ptolemy Builds First Light House- Ptolmey II the King of Egypt built a lighthouse on an island on the mouth of the Nile. The lighthouse was 400 feet high and could be seen from 40 miles away.
  • 274 – 236 BC Asoka’s Empire- Asoka became the emperor of the Mauryan Empire of India. He was a devout convert to Buddhism and ruled the empire according to Buddhist law. Asoka conquered the Kalinga and thus extending his control to over two-thirds of the Indian peninsula.
  • 265 – 241 BC First Punic War – The first Punic War developed as a result of a dispute over the Sicilian city of Messina. Rome sent an army to Sicily, which Carthage held to be part of its sphere of influence. For the first time, Rome was forced to raise a navy. After a protracted and difficult conflict, during which both sides won and lost battles, the Romans defeated the Carthaginian navy off the coast of Sicily. Carthage was forced to sue for peace. It renounced all claims to Sicily and agreed to pay an indemnity to Rome.
  • 245 BC Third Syrian War- The Third Syrian War started when Ptolemy III’s sister, (Antiochus II Theo current wife) was killed by his former wife. Ptolemy responded by invading the Seleucid Empire, advancing all the way to Bactria. He captured Babylon and Susa along the way, amassing much spoils. A revolt at home forced Ptolemy to return to Egypt.
  • 240 BC Archemides Shows Value Of Pi- Archemides the Greek mathmatician was the first to determine the value of pi. He also successfully calculated the area of a circle.
    238 BC Rome Annexes Sardinia And Corsica- The Romans annexed Sardinia and Corsica during a revolt against Carthage. Thus Roman rule was extended even farther.
  • 230 BC Aritstarchus Of Samos – Aristarchus died in 230 BC. He caluculated the size of the earth, sun and the moon. He showed that the earth orbited the sun and the moon orbited the earth.
  • 218 – 201 BC 2nd Punic War- Hannibal – After Carthage was defeated in the first Punic War, it recovered and rebuilt its army. When Rome provoked Carthage by encouraging a rebellion in one of its colonies — Spain — Carthage struck back. Led by its greatest general Hannibal, Carthage was determined to bring war to Rome. Hannibal crossed the Alps with between 30,000 and 40,000 men, 6,000 horses and even elephants. Hannibal defeated the Romans in a battle at Cannae. His armies were free to roam Italy at will. Hannibal’s forces, however, were not strong enough to lay siege to any city, including Rome. Rome responded by pushing the Carthaginians out of Spain, transforming it into another Roman province. Finally, Rome took the war to Carthage, prompting Hannibal’s recall from Italy. The Romans defeated Hannibal at the Battle of Zama in 202 B.C.; the next year a peace treaty was signed.
  • 221 BC Great Wall Of China Built- The Great Wall of China was begun in 221 BC by Shih Huang Ti. The wall was built along 1,200 miles of China’s northern border. It was between 20-50 feet high and 18-30 feet wide.
  • 217 BC 4th Syrian War- The Fourth Syrian War come to an end at the Battle of Rafiah. Ptolemy IV of Egypt defeats Antiochus III, who had earlier captured Egyptian territory in Syria. The war ended with Ptolemy getting back territory lost earlier in the war, but without any other substantial changes.
  • 216 BC 1st Macedonian War- The first Macedonian War broke out when Philip V of Macedonia invaded Illyria. The Romans made use of their superior control of the seas to thwart the Macedonians.
  • 215 BC Specific Gravity Discovered- Archimedes the Greek mathmetician discovered the principles of specific gravity. The principle states that a body submersed in a liquid, the liquid loses the same weight as the weight of the body submersed. This was used by the Greeks to determine the purity of gold..

WORLD HISTORY 200 – 100 B.C. Antiochus III, Ends Syrian War, Macedonian War End, Kao Tsu- 1st Han Emperor Dies, 3rd Macedonian War, Judas Macabaeus, Third Punic War, 4th Macedonian War, Masinissa, King Of Numidai Dies, Cathrage Razed, Aqueducts Bring Water, Stone Bridge With Arches, 1st Serville Wars, Simon Macabaeus, Tiberius Gracchus, The Gracchi, Hipparchus Astronomer, 2nd Servile War

  • 198 BC Antiochus III, The Great Ends Fifth Syrian War-The Fifth Syrian War ended at the Battle of Banyais, between Antiochus II (King of the Seleucid Empire) and Ptolemy V of Egypt. The Egyptians were decisively defeated by Antiochus’ forces, and were forced to cede all their territory — with the exception of the Sinai Desert — to the Seleucids.
  • 197 BC 2nd Macedonian War Ends- The Romans became involved in the second Macedonian War after an appeal by Athens and the other Greek city-states against Philip and Antiochus of Syria. Rome defeated Philip at the Battle of Cynocephalae and the Greeks were forced to surrender. Under terms of the agreement, the Greeks were left nominally independent.
  • 195 BC Kao Tsu- 1st Han Emperor Dies- Kao Tsu, first emperor of the Han dynasty, died in 195 B.C. During his reign, he expanded the Empire pushing the Huns out of China and occupying inner Mongolia. Han opened the silk route to Syria and founded the Chinese civil service.
  • 172 -168 BC 3rd Macedonian War – The Third Macedonian War broke out after Perseus revived the Macedonian army and became a renewed threat to Roman influence. The Roman Legions, led by Consul Aemilius, destroyed the Macedonian army at the Battle of Pydna.
  • 160 BC Judas Macabaeus – The Jews in Judea were prohibited from practicing their religion. In 167 B.C. the Jews, led by an aged priest Mattityahu and his five sons, led a revolt against the Seleucid Empire. Judas Maccabeus, son of Mattityahu, liberated Jerusalem and cleansed the Temple. This led to independence for Judea.
  • 149 BC Third Punic War- The Third Punic War occurred as a result of Rome’s obsession with Carthage. Roman Senator Cato would end every speech with “Carthage must be destroyed”. The Roman army landed at Carthage and laid siege to the city. The siege lasted three years, but in the end, the Romans captured Carthage and razed the city.
  • 149 – 148 BC 4th Macedonian War- The Macedonians led by Andricus, who claimed to be a son of Perseus, rebelled against Roman rule. The Romans defeated the Macedonians, made Macedonia a province of Rome and executed Andricus.

WORLD HISTORY 100 – 50 B.C. Diocletian Persecute Christians, Tatar Warriors Break Great Wall, Gupta Dynasty, The Battle Of Adrianople, Persian Repel Arabs, Constantine The Great, Capital At Byzantium, Constantine Dies, Battle At Mursa, Battle Of Argentoratum, Ostrogoths Subjected By The Huns, Valens Killed by Visigoths, Theodosius Dies Empire Split, Roman Empire

  • 91 – 88 BC The Social War- The Social War broke out when Italians who were not citizens of the Roman Empire revolted. While parts of the revolt were settled only on the battlefield, it was not until all Italians were offered citizenship in Rome that the rebellion finally ended.
  • 89 – 84 BC The Mithridatic War – The Mithridatic war broke out between Rome and the Anatolian Kingdom of Pontus. The war was precipitated by the seizure of Roman protectorates by Mithridates IV. The Anatolians gained control of the sea and formed alliances with Athens and other Greek city-states. The Romans appointed Consul Sulla to fight the Anatolians. The Romans retook Athens and then defeated the Mithridates at the Battles of Chaerona and Orchomenus, in central Greece. Finally, the Roman navy defeated the Mithridates’ navy. The war ended with the Treaty of Dardanus in 84 B.C., under whose terms the Mithridates gave up all the captured territories and paid a fine to Rome.
  • 82 BC Consul Sulla Enters Rome- In 82 B.C., Consul Sulla returned to Rome after subduing opponents of Roman rule. Sulla was elected dictator of Rome. He then brutally repressed all opponents to his regime. He restored the power of the aristocracy and destroyed the power of the tribunes.
  • 73 BC Third Servile War -The most famous slave revolt, which became known as the Third Servile War, was led by Spartacus, a gladiator. Spartacus and his men seized Mount Vesuvius, and thousands of slaves flocked to his side. Spartacus defeated a number of Romans armies. He was eventually defeated by a Roman army led by Praetor Crassus and was killed in 71 B.C.
  • 65 BC Pompey’s Conquest- Roman forces under the command of Pompey defeated Mithridates VI, king of Pontus. Pompey forced Mithridates to flee to the eastern Black Sea regions and then to Armenia. Finally, Mithridates committed suicide thus ending the war and giving Pompey a total victory.
  • 63 BC Pompey Captures Jerusalem -Pompey was invited to settle a dispute between Hyrcanus II and his brother, Aristobulus II, and took this as an opportunity to conquer Judea. After a three-month siege, Pompey captured Jerusalem. Pompey killed 12,000 of Jerusalem’s Jews.
  • 60 BC Pompey, Crassus & Julius Caesar Form Triumvirate- Julius Caesar, Gnaeus Pompey and Marcus Crassus formed the first triumvirate to rule Rome. Each had successfully commanded Roman armies in the field. They worked together to advance each other’s needs. The alliance was cemented when Caesar’s daughter Julia married Pompey.
  • 58 BC Caesar Defeats Celtic Hevetii (Switzerland)- In the Battle at Issus, Macedonian forces under Alexander, met a Persian army, numbering nearly 500,000 men, under the command of Darius lll. Alexander attacked the Persian infantry in the center of the lines and achieved an overwhelming victory, decimating the Persian forces.
  • 57 BC Caesar Defeats Celtics Belgae Tribes- Julius Caesar defeated the Celtic Helvetica tribes from what is modern-day Switzerland. The battle took place at Bibracate in the present-day France. The Rhine become the frontier as most of Eastern France was occupied by the Romans.
  • 55 BC Caesar Invades Britain- Caesar led Roman troops across the Straits of Dover for a short reconnaissance mission and then returned to Gaul. He came to England the next year with a larger force, defeated the Catuvellauni and established Roman sovereignty over parts of England.
  • 50 BC Kingdoms Of Korea Founded- The Kingdoms of Korea were founded around 50 B.C. There were the Koguryo in the north, Silla in the southeast and Pakche in the southwest.

WORLD HISTORY 50 – 0 B.C. Caesar Crosses Rubicon, Julius Ceasar Puts Down Rebellion, Caesar Defeats Pompey’s Sons, Caesar Assassinated, Second Triumvirate, Cicero Assassinated, Anthony Defeated Cassius, Herod The Great, Battle Of Naulochus, Battle Of Actium, Octavian, First Roman Emperor, Tiberius Campaigns Against Germanic Tribes, Herod Builds Artificial Harbor, Herod Dies

  • 49 BC Caesar Crosses The Rubicon- Julius Caesar and his army crossed the Rubicon in Northern Italy. Caesar was declared a public enemy by the Roman Senate for refusing to disband his army. By crossing the Rubicon, Caesar broke Roman law and was guilty of treason. Pompey was forced to flee as Roman soldiers flocked to Caesar. Caesar successfully gained control of all Italy. The next year, Caesar achieved complete victory over Pompey in the Battle of Pharsalus.
  • 48 BC Julius Ceasar Puts Down Rebellion In Egypt- Julius Caesar traveled to Egypt in pursuit of Pompey, whom he had earlier defeated. When Caeser arrived, he learned that Pompey had been killed. Caesar then suppressed a rebellion against Cleopatra VII.
  • 45 – BC Caesar Defeats Pompey’s Sons – Caesar fought the sons of Gnaeus and Sextus at the Battle of Munda in Southern Spain. Sextus escaped but Gnaeus was caught and executed by Caesar. This put an end to Rome’s civil war. Caesar returned to Rome and was made dictator for life.
  • 44 BC Caesar Assassinated- Despite Caesar’s many accomplishments and general popularity, there remained a group of disaffected citizens. Most were former Antony supporters who had been pardoned and given positions of responsibility by Caesar. The ringleader of what became a conspiracy to assassinate Caesar was Longinus Caius Cassius. He was joined by Marcus Junius Brutus. A meeting of the Senate was called for the 15th (the Ides) of March to discuss the Parthian War. Caesar had been warned not to attend the session, but went anyway. The moment Caesar took his seat, the conspirators surrounded him. They began to petition him to recall from banishment a certain Cimber. When Caesar arose, they attacked him with knives. It is said that Caesar tried to defend himself, but when he saw Brutus among the attackers he cried out ‘Et Tu, Brutus’ and succumbed. The death of Caesar was followed by a power struggle between Mark Antony and Julius Octavian.
  • 43 BC Second Triumvirate – The Second Triumvirate was established in 43 B.C. in Rome. It was composed of Mark Antony, Octavian and M Aeumillius Lepidus. This triumvirate was officially recognized by the Senate.
  • 43 BC Cicero Assassinated- Cicero, the greatest Roman orator, denounced Antony. In return Antony ordered the assassination of Cicero. Cicero was subsequently murdered.
  • 42 BC Anthony Defeated Cassius – Mark Antony battled the forces of Cassius at Philippi. Cassius was defeated and committed suicide. Twenty days later, forces under Brutus were also defeated and Brutus, too, committed suicide.
  • 37 BC Herod The Great – Herod the Great was recognized by the Roman senate as King of Judea. The Hasmonean dynasty which had ruled Judea until this period, had allied themselves with the Parthians, who were to be defeated by Mark Antony’s forces.
  • 36 BC Romans Under Vispasanius Battle Of Naulochus- The Roman fleet, commanded by Agrippa, defeated a fleet commanded by Pompey the Younger at the Battle of Naulochus. Pompey escaped to Anatolia only to be executed by troops of Mark Antony the next year.
  • 31 BC Battle Of Actium- With the end of the five-year term of the Second Triumvirate, a rivalry broke out between Mark Antony and Octavian. Mark Antony was discredited by Octavian for his marriage to Cleopatra. Octavian successfully convinced the Senate that Mark Antony’s actions were a danger to Rome, and they allied with him against Antony. A naval battle broke out at Actium off Epirus in Western Greece. Although the battle results were not decisive, Antony and Cleopatra fled to Egypt, where Antony’s army surrendered. Antony and Cleopatra killed themselves soon after.
  • 27 BC Octavian, First Roman Emperor- Octavian became the first Roman Emperor. His defeat of Mark Antony brought a period of peace to the empire. In 27 B.C., Octavian declared the “restoration of the Republic;” in fact, he retained many powers in his own hands. He directly controlled all the armies of Rome. As army commander, Augustus (as Octavian was now known) received the title Imperator (emperor). Octavian greatly streamlined the administration of the provinces. He directly appointed the governors of all the provinces that still required military control. He also approved all other appointments. The Senate continued to meet, but Augustus completely dominated all aspects of Roman society. The peace he brought Rome and the careful way he exercised power ensured his great popularity.
  • 16 BC Tiberius Campaigns Against Germanic Tribes-Roman Legions commanded by Tiberius initiated a campaign against the Germanic tribes. The campaign extended the Roman Empire to the area of modern-day Switzerland and much of Germany and Hungary.
  • 10 BC Herod Builds Artificial Harbor- Herod the Great built a new city on the Mediterranean coast. He named the city Ceasaria. Ceasaria became the Roman capital for Judea. What was unique about Ceasaria was the harbor that was built. It was the first artificial harbor built in an open sea.
  • 3 BC Herod The Great Dies- Herod the Great, King of Judea, died after a peaceful 33-year reign. He was strongly favored by Rome for bringing stability to Judea, but disliked by many Jewish factions for his lack of religious zeal. He is best known for his building projects. He rebuilt the Temple in Jerusalem and established the city of Caesarea, among many other achievements.

WORLD HISTORY 1 – 100 A.D. Jesus Christ Born, Herod Deposed, Tribes Destroy 3 Roman Legions, Hsin Dynasty, Tiberius Secedes Augustus, Han Dynasty, Caligula Assassinated, Conquest Of Wales, Claudius Murdered, Rome Burns, Judaea Rebels Against Rome, Four Emperors, Jerusalem Falls, Masada Falls, Kushan Dynasty, Mount Vesuvius Explodes, Coloseum Dedicated, Domitian’s Reign Of Terror, Five Good Emperors

  • Some time between 3 B.C. and 1 A.D. – Jesus Christ is born. Later, the Catholic Church will seek to claim Jesus’ birth on Decemeber 25th to align with a pagan festival. The Early Church believed, instead, that Jesus was born on April 1st. When Rome begins their persecution of the Christian Church, they mock April 1st as a “day of fools” which later becomes “April Fools Day.”
  • 6 AD Herod Deposed-Herod Archelaus was deposed by the Roman Emperor, Augustus because of Herod Archelaus’ brutal treatment of the Jews of Judea and Samaria.
  • 9 AD German Tribes Destroy 3 Roman Legions- Three Roman legions under the command of P Quinctilius Varnus were defeated by a German army led by Ariminus. The battle took place in the Teutoburg Forest, and resulted in Varnus committing suicide.The results of this battle ensured German independence from Rome.
  • 9 AD Hsin Dynasty- Wang Mang founded the short-lived Hsin Dynasty. He instituted wide-ranging reforms that included breaking up large estates, and freeing of slaves. There was a great deal of opposition to his policies and he was eventually forced to tax slaveholding instead of releasing slaves. Wang Mang instituted a series of price controls on staples. His opponents fomented revolts against him and in 23 he was killed during one such revolt.
  • 14 AD Tiberius Secedes Augustus – Augustus died on August 19th at Nola. While legally all of his powers ceased with his demise, Augustus had arranged for his family members to succeed him. Thus Tiberius, the son of Augustus’ wife Livia by her first marriage, became the new Emperor of Rome.
  • 25 AD Han Dynasty Founded – After the death of Wang Mang, Hou Han founded the Eastern Han Dynasty. During this dynasty, which lasted until 220, Buddhism was introduced into China.
  • 30 AD Jesus Christ was put to death by the Romans in Jerusalem on April 7th
  • 41 AD Caligula Assassinated- After the death of Tiberius, he was succeeded by Caligula. Caligula was considered by many to be insane. He was assassinated by Cassius Chaerea, a member of the Praetorian Guard on January 24th in the year 41 A.D.
  • 51 AD Conquest Of Wales Completed By Romans- The Romans under Ostorius Scaopula defeated Carctacus of Wales. This eventually led to the complete subjugation of Wales to the Romans twenty years later.
  • 54 AD Claudius Murdered, Nero Emperor- According to legend, Claudius was assassinated by his wife Agrippina using poisoned mushrooms. Agrippina then arranged for her son, Nero, to become Emperor. Nero eventually had his mother killed.
  • 64 AD Rome Burns- The city of Rome was nearly destroyed in a catastrophic fire. The fire is said to have been set by Nero. Legend has it that ‘Rome burned while Nero fiddled’.
  • 66 AD Judaea Rebels Against Rome- A rebellion broke out in Jerusalem against Roman rule. The Roman fortress of Antonia in Jerusalem was captured and the soldiers killed. The Romans dispatch an army from Syria to quell the revolt, but it was destroyed on the way to Jerusalem.
  • 68 AD Year of the Four Emperors- The year 69 A.D. is known as the year of the four emperors. Nero was assassinated and civil war erupted to determine who would succeed him. In the course of that tumultuous year, Nero was succeeded by Galba who was followed by Otho. Otho was defeated by Vitellius and Vespasian finally established a new dynasty. Vespasian himself was the son of a tax collector from Reate. He represented a complete break with the Augustinian dynasties that preceded him.
  • 70 AD Jerusalem Falls- Rome sent an enormous army under the command of Vespasian, to retake Judea. The Roman army quickly subdued the Jewish forces in the Galilee and laid siege to Jerusalem. Vespasian was recalled to Rome and the siege continued by his son, Titus. Titus succeeded in capturing Jerusalem on the ninth day of Ab (according to the Jewish calendar). He burned Jerusalem, killing or selling into slavery tens of thousands of Jews.
  • 73 AD Masada Falls- The Fortress of Masada, occupied by Jewish zealots opposed to Rome, held out for three years. Masada was located in the Judean Desert near the shores of the Dead Sea. When it became clear that they could hold out no longer, the defenders of Masada committed mass suicide rather then become captives of the Romans.
  • 78 AD Kushan Dynasty- The Kushan Dynasty was established by Kanishka. The Kushan Empire extended from Benares and Kabul to the Vindhayas. The Kushan capital was at Peshawar. The Kushans thrived on the Chinese-Roman trade that passed through their Empire.
  • 79 AD Mount Vesuvius Explodes- In 79 A.D., Mount Vesuvius erupted. The eruption destroyed the Roman cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum. Most of the cities’ populations managed to flee, but 20,000 inhabitants were killed.
  • 80 AD Coloseum Dedicated-Vespasian had ordered the Colosseum built, but it fell to his son Titus to dedicate it. It was used for gladiator games until 404 AD.
  • 89 AD Domitian’s Reign Of Terror- Domitian who succeeded Titus Vespasianus (his older brother), commenced a reign of terror after an abortive coup against him. Domitian levied heavy taxes on the provinces. Domitian was assassinated in 96 A.D.
  • 96 – 180 AD Five Good Emperors – Starting with Emperor Marcus Nerva, Rome was ruled by five individuals who became known as the “Good Emperors”. The Emperors maintained both domestic tranquility and relative peace on the borders. They were known for building roads and other large civil projects.

The Five Emperors were:
96-98 A.D. Marcus Nerva
98-117 A.D. Marcus Traianus
117-138 A.D. Publiius Hadrianus (Hadrian)
138-161 A.D. Antoninus Pius
161-180 A.D. Marcus Aurelius

WORLD HISTORY 100 – 200 A.D. Hadrian’s Wall Built, Chang Heng Invents Seismograph, Bar Kochba Revol, German Tribes Invades N. Italy, Marcus Aurelius Dies, Revolt of the Yellow Turbans

  • 122 AD Hadrian’s Wall Was Built- The Roman emperor Hadrian on a visit to Britain ordered the construction of a defensive wall. The wall stretched 70 miles across Northern England.
  • 132 AD Chang Heng Invents Seismograph- The Chinese poet and inventor developed the first seismograph. The instrument was a series of balls that fall if there is the slightest tremor.
  • 132 AD Bar Kochba Revolt- The Jews of Jerusalem rose up in rebellion in 132 after the Romans built a temple to Jupiter on the site of the Jewish Temple. The revolt was led by Simon Bar Kokhba and Rabbi Eleazar and achieved some successes early on. The Romans were forced out of Jerusalem and most of Judea. Three years later, Roman armies under the command of Julius Severus retake Jerusalem and sack it. Bar Kokhba is killed at the village of Bethel. Under the orders of Roman Emperor Hadrian, Jerusalem is completely leveled and Jews are forbidden to live there.
  • 167 AD German Tribes Invades Northern Italy- The German tribes crossed the Danube River and attacked the Roman Empire. They advanced as far as Aquileia in Northern Italy. The Romans under Marcus Aurelius managed to repulse the Germans in 169 A.D.
  • 180 AD Marcus Aurelius Dies- In 180 A.D., Marcus Aurelius died and was succeeded by his son, Commodus. Commodus was the first emperor since Domitian to succeed by virtue of birth, rather than by assassination. Commodus later had two of his prefects executed. He lavished enormous wealth on himself and was strangled in 192 A.D.
  • 184 AD Revolt of the Yellow Turbans-In 184, a rebellion broke out among the peasantry in China. The government ministers were massacred and the Han dynasty was effectively brought to an end.

WORLD HISTORY 200 – 300 A.D. Septimius Severus, Edict Of Caracalla, Three Kingdoms, Battle Of Hormizdagan, Roman Army On Rhine Revolts, Marcus Postumus Defends Gaul, Battle At Chalons, Age Of Diocletian, Aurelius Carausius Revolts, Britain Reinvaded By Romans, Battle Of Carrhae

  • 200 AD Septimius Severus-Septimius Severus came to power at the point of a sword. Severus first challenged Didius Julianus who was the highest bidder to become emperor at a auction held by the Praetorian Guard. Severus went on to defeat Septimius Albinus and Pescennius Niger, each head of his own legion and each claiming the right to be Emperor.
  • 212 AD Edict Of Caracalla- Caracalla, the son of Septimus Severus who succeeded him after killing his brother, issued the Constitio Antoniniana. Although this edict extended Roman citizenship to all free inhabitants of the Empire, its value was limited since citizens actually had very few rights at this time.
  • 220 AD Three Kingdoms- Six Dynasties- With the end of the Han Dynasty, Tsao Pei assumed power and founded the Wei Dynasty. The Wei dynasty was the first in a series of dynasties known as the Six Dynasties. While the Wei dynasty would eventually be recognized as the legitimate one, for some period of time, three competing kingdoms each claimed to be the legitimate rulers of China.
  • 224 AD Battle Of Hormizdagan- Artabanus V, king of the Parthian Empire is defeated in the battle of Hormizdagan by Ardashir the shah of Persia. This proved the beginning of the Sassanid Empire.
  • 235 AD The Roman Army On Rhine Revolts – Alexander Severus the Roman Emperor conducted an indecisive campaign against the Germanic tribes. Alexander Severus’ troops revolted and killed him. Maximinus, a Thracian general, became the new emperor.
  • 259 AD Marcus Postumus Defends Gaul-From 235 to 284 A.D., the Roman Empire was shaken by Civil War. There were 22 emperors and all but two met their deaths violently. During this period, both Germanic tribes in the north and Sassanid Persians in the east made inroads into the Empire.
  • 274 AD Battle At Chalons – In 260 A.D., Marcus Postumus created a separate Gallic Empire. In 274 A.D. at the Battle of Chalons, his successor Pius Tetricus was defeated, thereby ending the short-lived Gallic Empire.
  • 284 – 305 AD Age Of Diocletian – Diocletian became emperor in 284 A.D. He engaged in a series of reforms that reinvigorated the empire and transformed it. His actions launched the period that became known as the Late Empire.  Diocletian divided the empire into four administrative units each with its own rulers and administration. Diocletion strengthened the army as well as the civil service.
  • 287 AD Aurelius Carausius Revolts-Aurelius Carausius, commander of the Roman fleet in the English Channel, revolted. He established England as an independent kingdom of Britain.
  • 296 AD Britain Reinvaded By Romans- Constantius Chlorus invaded Britain. He defeated Allectus who had killed Marcus Aurelius Carausius. Britain was reintegrated into the Roman Empire and divided into four provinces.
  • 296 AD Battle Of Carrhae – Artabanus V, King of the Parthian Empire, is defeated at the Battle of Hormizdagan by Ardashir, the Shah of Persia. This marked the beginning of the Sassanid Empire.

WORLD HISTORY 300 – 400 A.D. Diocletian Persecute Christians, Tatar Warriors Break Great Wall, Gupta Dynasty, The Battle Of Adrianople, Persian Repel Arabs, Constantine The Great, Capital At Byzantium, Constantine Dies, Battle At Mursa, Battle Of Argentoratum, Ostrogoths Subjected By The Huns, Valens Killed by Visigoths, Theodosius Dies Empire Split, Roman Empire

  • 303 AD Galerius Convinces Diocletian To Persecute Christians- Galeria the Roman Augustus convinced Diocletian to begin a general persecution of Christians in an attempt to stop the growth of the religion. Churches were burned, and clergy were imprisoned. Persecution decreased in the Western Empire by 305 A.D. and ended in the East in 313 A.D.
  • 317 AD Tatar Warriors Break Through Great Wall- Tatar warriors broke through the Great Wall of China that had been built during the Han Dynasty to provide Northern China with protection against invasion. The Tatars drove out the Western Chin Dynasty, which was forced to move its capital to Nanking.
  • 320 AD Gupta Dynasty- The Gupta Empire was founded in 320 by Chandragupta I. Under his successor, Samudragupta, the Gupta Empire was extended to include all of Northern India. The Gupta Empire ushered in a new golden age of Indian culture.
  • 324 AD Constantine The Great & The Battle Of Adrianople – Constantine the Great, who was named Caesar by his troops in Britain in 312 A.D., initiated a civil war of succession against his potential rivals for the throne. In a series of engagements that culminated in 324 A.D. at the Battle of Adrianople (in today’s Turkey), Constantine defeated all his rivals and became the undisputed emperor of all Rome.
  • 325 AD Persian Repel Arabs – Persia was invaded by Arabs from Baharian and Mesopotamia. Shapur II became leader of the Persians. It was he who carried the war to the Arabs, seizing much of Arabia and making them vassal states to the Persian Empire.
  • 330 AD Constantine The Great Establishes His Capital At Byzantium- In 330 Constantine the Great dedicated his new capital at Byzantium. The city that became known as Constantinople. It was strategically located in the East dominating the Bosphorus Straits. Constantine spent four years building his new capital.
  • 337 AD Constantine The Great Dies And Empire Divides- In 337 A.D., Constantine died. He left his empire to his sons. The empire soon found itself divided with the Western Roman Empire governed from Rome by Constans and the Eastern Roman Empire governed by Constantius II.
  • 351 AD Battle At Mursa- Reunites Empire- At the Battle of Mursa in present-day Croatia, Constantius defeated Magnentius. Magnentius committed suicide and the Roman Empire was once again united.
  • 361 – 363 AD Battle Of Argentoratum- At the Battle of Argentoratum in 357 A.D., the Roman general Julian drove the Franks from Gaul, thus re-establishing the Rhine as the frontier of the Empire. Julian’s victory served to ensure his popularity and he became the next Roman Emperor. But his reign lasted only 18 months: from November 361 to June 363 A.D. Julian is best known for his attempt to reinstitute paganism into Rome.
  • 376 AD Ostrogoths Subjected By The Huns- The Huns, a nomadic Mongol people, swept in from Asia. They managed to defeat the Ostrogoth Empire. This brought to an end an empire that had dominated Eastern Europe for 200 years.
  • 378 AD Valens Killed by Visigoths- After their defeat by the Huns, the Visigoths sought refuge in the Roman Empire. The Roman emperor Valens gave them permission to cross the Danube as long as they agreed to disarmament. In the end, the Visigoths were mistreated by Roman officials and they revolted. At the Battle at Adrianople, the Visigoths deployed mounted cavalry against the Romans. The Romans were soundly defeated by the Visigoths and Valens was killed. This represented one of the worst defeats ever suffered by the Romans. The northern borders of the Empire had been permanently pierced.
  • 395 AD Theodosius Dies Empire Split Permantly- When Emperor Theodosius died in 395 A.D., the Roman Empire was forever split. Theodosius was succeeded by his sons Arcadius, who ruled the Eastern portion, and Honorius, who ruled the Western.

WORLD HISTORY 400 – 500 A.D. Windmills In Persia, Romans leave Britain, Rome Sacked by Visigoths, Cathrage Captured By Vandals, First Saxon Revolt, Attila The Hun Defeated, Saxons Crush Britons, Vandals Sack Rome, Western Roman Empire Ends, Shah Defeated By Ephthalites, Roman Occupation Of Gaul Ends, Ostrogothic Kingdom Of Italy

  • 400 AD Windmills Used In Persia-The Fifth Syrian War ended at the Battle of Banyais, between Antiochus II (King of the Seleucid Empire) and Ptolemy V of Egypt. The Egyptians were decisively defeated by Antiochus’ forces, and were forced to cede all their territory — with the exception of the Sinai Desert — to the Seleucids.
  • 407 AD Romans Withdraw From Britain- In 407 A.D., Constantine led his troops on a withdrawal from Britain. Roman troops never returned to Britain.
  • 410 AD Rome Sacked by Visigoths- After a series of battles that continued sporadically for over ten years, the Visigoths under the command of Alaric, sacked Rome in August 410 A.D. For twelve days, Alaric and his men rained ruin upon the city.
  • 439 AD Cathrage Captured By Vandals – The Roman city of Carthage was captured by Vandals, under the command of Genseric. Carthage became his capital.
  • 441 AD First Saxon Revolt- The first Saxon revolt against native Britons took place in 441 A.D. It was led by two brothers, Hengst and Horsa.
  • 451 AD Attila The Hun Defeated- Attila the Hun was leader of the Huns and it was he who had earlier defeated the Visigoths. Attila commanded an army that is said to have numbered as many as half a million men. Attila swept through Gaul. In 451 A.D., Attila faced the Visigoths and Romans together in the battle of Chalons. Attila was defeated in this battle, and forced to withdraw. He went on to invade Italy but was convinced to withdraw by Pope Leo. He died in 453 A.D.
  • 455 AD Saxons Crush Britons- At the battle of Aylesford in Kent, England, the Saxons led by Hengst and Horsa defeated the Britons. This battle was an important step in the Saxon conquest of Britain.
  • 455 AD Vandals Sack Rome- The Vandals viewed the assassination of the Western Roman Emperor Valentinian III as an opportunity to attack Rome. Their attack was successful and the city was sacked.
  • 476 AD Western Roman Empire Ends- The Western Roman Empire came to an end when the Emperor Romulus Augustulus was deposed by German mercenaries at Ravenna. The German mercenaries then declared themselves to be the rulers of Italy.
  • 483 AD Shah Defeated By Ephthalites- Firuz, the Shah of Iran, was defeated by the Ephthalites (from the site of present-day Afghanistan). Firuz attacked the Ephthalites after a series of inconclusive skirmishes with them.
  • 486 AD Roman Occupation Of Gaul Ends- The last Roman emperor of France was defeated by Clovis I, King of the Salian Franks. After the defeat of the Romans, Clovis established the Kingdom of the Franks.
  • 488 AD Ostrogothic Kingdom Of Italy- Theodoric I (the Great) invaded northern Italy at the request of Zeno the Byzantine Emperor. He conquered Italy and established the Ostrogothic Kingdom of Italy.

WORLD HISTORY 500 – 600 A.D. Arthur’s Victory Over Saxons, Svealand-Swedish State, Persian-Roman Wars, Kingdom Of Franks, Nika Revolt, Hagia Sophia Cathedral, Battle at Taginae, The Avars, Justinian Great, Leovigild King Of Visigoths, Battle At Deorham, Sui Dynasty Reunites China, Pope Greogory Obtains 30 Year Truce

  • 500 AD Arthur’s Victory Over Saxons-The legendary Arthur won a battle against the Saxons at Mound Badon in Dorset, in Southern England. This slowed the Saxon conquest of England.
  • 500 AD Svealand- The First Swedish State- Svealand, the first Swedish state was founded around 500 A.D. The Goths inhabited the Southern part of the Swedish peninsula. Much of what is known about early Sweden has been taken from the epic “Beowulf”, written in 700 A.D.
  • 503 – 557 AD Persian-Roman Wars- Between 503 and 557 A.D.,three successive wars — interrupted by periods of peace — are fought between the Persian Empire and the Eastern Roman Empire. All have the same basic cause — an inability to define the borders and the relationship between the two empires. In 567 a ‘definitive’ peace was reached. Under its terms, Rome agreed to pay the Persians 30,000 pieces of gold annually. The borders between the empire were reaffirmed, Christian worship was to be protected in the Persian Empire, and regulation of trade and diplomatic relations were laid out.
  • 507 AD Kingdom Of Franks – The Franks’ Clovis defeated the Visigoths under Alaric II at the Battle of Vouille. The Visigoths retreated into Spain, where they retained their Empire.
    532 AD Nika Revolt- A popular uprising took place in Constantinople against Justinian. Constantinople was nearly destroyed by fire. The insurrection quelled with great cruelty by Belisarius. Thirty thousand people were slain.
  • 537 AD Hagia Sophia Cathedral Built- The Hagia Sophia Cathedral in Constantinople was completed. The cathedral represented the culmination of Byzantine architecture, with a large domed basilica.
  • 552 AD Battle at Taginae- The Byzantine army invaded Italy and defeated the Ostrogoths at the Battle of Taginae. The Byzantines, using a combination of pikes and bows, decimated the Ostrogothic Kingdom of Italy.
  • 558 – 650 AD The Avars- The Avars, a Turkish Mongolian group, formed an Empire that extended from the Volga to the Hungarian plains. In 626 A.D., they laid siege to Constantinople, but were forced to withdraw.
  • 565 AD Justinian Great- Justinian the Great died in 565 A.D. bringing to end 38 years of rule as leader of the Byzantine Empire. Under his stewardship, the Empire expanded to include all of North Africa and parts of the Middle East as well as Italy and Greece. Under Justinian, the first comprehensive compilation of Roman Law was published.
  • 572 AD Leovigild King Of Visigoths- Leovigild the King of Visigoths set off to reinvigorate the empire. He extended the Vistigoth dominance to all parts of the Iberian Pennisular.
  • 577 AD Battle At Deorham- At the Battle of Deorham in southwestern England, the Saxons defeated the Welsh. This victory virtually completed the Saxon conquest of England.
  • 581 AD Sui Dynasty Reunites China- After nearly four centuries of internal divisions and strife, China was reunited under the leadership of Yang Jian. A member of a respected aristocratic family, Yang Jian founded the Sui Dynasty. Yang Jian used Buddhism to help unite the kingdom.
  • 598 AD Pope Gregory Obtains 30 Year Truce- Gregory the Great was the first monk to become Pope. For many, he was a model for the future papacy. Gregory controlled the civil affairs of Rome and expanded the power of the Church. Gregory also negotiated a 30-year truce with Lombards, insuring the independence of Rome.

WORLD HISTORY 600 – 700 A.D. This century’s outline is provided by Frank Smitha and Scott Jones, whose website Macrohistory focuses more precisely on the developments of the Islamic faith and their transition after the death of Mohammed.

  • 602 Constantinople’s army mutinies against the Emperor Maurice and the masses join in against anyone who is wealthy – Christians against Christians. Maurice and his family are butchered as Maurice prays. Their heads are put on display and their bodies cast into the sea. A non-commissioned army officer, Phocas, becomes emperor. Pope Gregory joyfully applauds Maurice’s demise, and he describes the coming to power of Phocas as the work of Providence. He asks Catholics to pray that Phocas might be strengthened against all his enemies.
  • 603 Khosrau II of Persia, who had had a good relationship with Maurice and his family, is disturbed by their deaths and declares war against Phocas and Constantinople. The Zoroastrian priesthood in Persia is pleased. As they see it, their king is responsible for conquering the world in order to spread peace, the Zoroastrian faith, individual salvation and to prepare all humankind for the great, worldwide battle against Satan at Armageddon.
  • 610 The army of Phocas has been occupied by war with Persia, and Avars and Slavs have been advancing through Constantinople’s empire in Europe. Constantinople’s governor in Egypt, Heraclius, sails with a small army to Constantinople, and with Phocas having lost much of his support, Heraclius easily defeats him. Phocas is executed and Heraclius became emperor.
  • 613 Muhammad has begun preaching publicly in his hometown, Mecca, and he is being ignored or is thought to be crazy.
  • 618 In China, the Sui Dynasty has worked people too hard on public works projects and has lost economic prosperity in its wars against Korea. With flooding and famine has come rebellion and civil war. The victor, the Duke of Tang, becomes Emperor Gao-zu. The Sui Dynasty has ended and the Tang Dynasty has begun.
  • 622 Pilgrims from Yathrib visiting Mecca (a holy city before the existence of Islam) are favorably impressed by Muhammad and invite him to return with them to their town. The town has no unifying governmental authority. Muhammad is fifty-two and becomes recognized in Yathrib as a religious leader and someone to go to for settling disputes.
  • 623 Yathrib has a large Jewish community, and its leaders reject Muhammad’s claim to be a leader of Judaism. Muhammad and his followers stop bowing toward Jerusalem and begin bowing toward Mecca, and Muhammad abandons Saturday as the Sabbath and makes Friday his special day of the week.
  • 624 Mohammad has responded to economic hardship in Yathrib by organizing raids on merchant’s caravans. He has his greatest success so far, at Bedr, where the raiders kill an estimated fifty to seventy persons from Mecca. Muhammad and Mecca are hostile, Muhammad claiming God to be on his side and blaming Mecca for having rejected him.
  • 626 Avars, helped by Slavs, attack the walls of Constantinople. The Persians also assault the city. The Patriarch of Constantinople, Sergius, leads a defense of Constantinople and defeats the Avars.
  • 630 Muhammad’s military has grown stronger, and in his war with Mecca he emerges victorious. Mecca’s wealthy are obliged to donate to the well being of its poor. People in Mecca see Muhammad’s strength as the power of his god, and they see the other gods as having become powerless. There is a mass conversion to Islam, and Muhammad adds Mecca’s army to his own. Muhammad conquers the rest of Arabia, puts down others claiming to be prophets.
  • 630 Constantinople’s army pushed through Mesopotamia, destroying as they went. The great canal works in Mesopotamia have been destroyed. The Persian army has overthrown Khosrau II. His son is crowned Khavad II and signs a peace treaty with Constantinople and returns Egypt, Palestine, Asia Minor and western Mesopotamia to Constantinople’s empire.
  • 632 Muhammad the Prophet dies.
  • 634 The momentum generated by victories against dissidents and breakaway regions left Islamic warriors restless and feeling aggressive, and Arabia has been in an economic recession, trade having come to a standstill after ten years of war. War for booty is a tradition, and as an alternative to making raids against “the faithful” in Arabia, Muslim warriors are making raids into Mesopotamia. They meet little resistance and are encouraged to make more war. Islam’s first caliph to succeed Muhammad, Abu Bakr, declares a holy war in support of the raiders, and one of the greatest imperialisms of all time begins.
  • 640 Buddhist doctrine and Shinto have been influencing each other. The Buddha, represented by the statue at Nara, has become identified with the Sun Goddess of Shinto worship, and Buddhist ceremonies have been weaved into traditional court ritual.
  • 645 The Soga clan has been oppressive and arrogant and its leaders are overthrown and put to the sword by the Nakatomi clan – whose leader had been serving as Japan’s Shinto high priest. The Nakatomi would now select who among the Yamato family would be emperor and continue to run daily court ceremonies.
  • 646 Muslim warriors have attacked wealthy but not common people, and they have not raped as some Christian armies have. In some areas they are seen as at least as no worse than the rule they are replacing. The empires of Constantinople and Persia have been weakened by war and lack of support, and Muslim warriors have conquered as far north as Syria, much of Mesopotamia and all of Egypt.
  • 650 A mid-eastern people of mixed race, the Khazars, expand westward along the north shore of the Black Sea and push Bulgars from east of the Dniester River. The Bulgars migrate south, across the Danube River, and found the kingdom that in modern times is called Bulgaria. The Khazars sell captured people, mainly Slavs – the origin of the modern English word, slave.
  • 651 Almost thirty years have passed since Muhammad’s death. The third caliph since Muhammad tries to put an end to quarreling over Muhammad’s legacy and orders a committee to collect Muhammad’s messages into a standard word, to be called the Koran, drawing from the memories and the tradition of passing history on orally. The result produces the wrath of various people and communities across Arabia who had become wedded to these rival interpretations.
  • 652 The Muslims have conquered Persia, where people and the Zoroastrian religion were a greater barrier to conquest than were the people of previous territories. Muslims see Zoroastrianism as evil, and in Persia, its homeland, Zoroastrianism is doomed.
  • 654 Christian missionaries from Ireland are beginning to evangelize across England. The king of Essex, Sigebert, has been influenced by Northumbria and has just converted to Christianity. Northumbria defeats the pagan king of Mercia, gains possession of Mercia and its king becomes overlord of England’s southern kingdoms. With pagans, Catholicism has won prestige with the military victory – a look of the Christian god’s superior power. Mercia converts to Christianity.
  • 656 In Medina (Yathrib) Uthman is assassinated. The leaders of the sect that assassinated Uthman proclaims Ali, Muhammad’s son-in-law, caliph. Civil war erupts.
  • 660 The Koran, as an arranged book and considered complete, is published for the first time. Muhammad’s main concern after his conquest of Mecca was resistance by recalcitrant tribes in Arabia and claims by rival prophets among the resisters. Reflecting this struggle, the Koran describes non-believers as evil and people who can expect war from God (3.151). But the Koran also advocates peace with enemies who are inclined toward it (8.61). Muhammad wanted people within his realm, including Christians and Jews, to get along. He wanted to tax Christians and Jews, and in the Koran are verses about Christians and Jews not fearing or grieving (2.62). Drawing as Muhammad did from the biblical tradition that had entered Arabia, the Koran mentions biblical figures and repeats the biblical message of God’s love and grace. (5.54).
  • 661 An assassination attempt has been made on Ali, the son-in-law of Muhammad, and he dies of his wounds, aggravating a split between his supporters, called Shia Muslims. Their rivals, Sunni Muslims, are establishing a new caliphate at Damascus, in Syria.
  • 664 The civil war among the Muslims ends. Led by caliph Mu’awiyah in Damascus, Islam renews military expansion.
  • 679 According to Byzantine chroniclers, Bulgars cross the Danube into the Balkans. Previously they had made raids into the area. This time they come to stay, in territory that Constantinople (Byzantium) considers its own. Constantinople is annoyed but busy warring against Muslim Arabs.
  • 680 A rebellion against another Umayyad caliph supports the son of Ali, Hussein. He is hopelessly outnumbered at the battle of Karbala, but he wants to die fighting, and does. He becomes the martyr for whom Shi’a Muslims will annually thrash themselves.
  • 690 In China, Wu Zetian has worked her way from the emperor’s favorite concubine to replacing his wife and dominating the court, and now she officially becomes Empress Wu – the only Chinese woman emperor in history. Murder and terror have been her methods. Challenging Confucian opposition to rule by a woman, she has championed feminism, and she champions Buddhism.
  • 692 The twelve-year civil war ends when the Syrian army overruns Mecca. The new Umayyad caliph since 685 has been Abd al-Malik.
  • 700 Non-Arab Muslims outnumber Arab Muslims. Despite resistance from Arab leaders, integration between Arabs and non-Arab Muslims is rising. An Islamic empire by Arabs is on its way toward being swallowed by its conquests.

WORLD HISTORY 700 – 800 A.D. Chinese Invent Gunpowder, Srivijaya Empire, Walid I, Wu Hou Empress Of China, Muslim Army Conquers Tangiers, Islamic Conquest Of Spain, Kingdom Of Asturias, Battle Of Tours, Abu-Al Abbas Accepts A Public Oath, Pepin The Short, AL Mansur, Charlemagne, Al-Mahdi Reigns, Harun Al Rashid, Kyoto Founded

  • 700 AD Chinese Invent Gunpowder-The Chinese combined saltpeter, sulpher, and carbon to create gun powder. The Chinese used gun powder primarily for fireworks.
  • 700 AD Srivijaya Empire (Indonesia)-The Srivijaya Empire becomes the leading power in Indonesia. The Srivijayas originated in southern Sumatra. They controlled commercial trade routes through the islands.
  • 705 AD Walid I- Malik I was succeeded by his son Walid. Under Walid’s reign, the Omayyad Caliphate reached India in the East and Spain in the west. Many important structures were completed under his stewardship including the Dome of the Rock Mosque in Jerusalem.
  • 705 AD Wu Hou Empress Of China – Wu Hou became Empress of China in 705. She was the first woman to rule China and during her reign strengthened the T’ang Dynasty.
  • 707 AD Muslim Army Conquers Tangiers – Tangiers was captured by Muslim armies under the command of Musa ibn-Nusayr in 707. Musa was the Ommayad governor of North Africa. The Moroccan Berbers were subdued by Musa.
  • 711 AD Islamic Conquest Of Spain- The Islamic conquest of Spain began when Tariq, a Muslim general, crossed the Straits of Gibraltar. On July 26th his army of 7,000 men defeated Roderick, the last King of the Visigoths at the Battle of Wadi Bekka. The Muslims went on to the conquest of Spain, advancing to the Pyrenees by 718 A.D.
  • 711 AD Charlemagne- Charlemagne became the Frankish ruler in the east upon the death of his brother Caroman I. Until his brother’s death, Charlemagne had ruled the Neustri and Aquitaine. In a series of campaigns, Charlemgne expanded his empire to include all of Germany . He maintained very close ties to the Pope, thus increasing church influence.
  • 718 AD Pelayo Founded Kingdom Of Asturias- Pelayo defeated the Muslims at Covadonga in Northwest Spain. Pelayo, a Christian, created the Kingdom of Asturias.
  • 730 AD Khazar Defeat Arabs. Khazar commander Barjik leads Khazar troops through the Darial Pass to invade Azerbaijan. At the Battle of Ardabil, the Khazars defeat an entire Arab army. The Battle of Ardabil lasted three days, and resulted in the death of a major Arab general named Jarrah. The Khazars then conquered Azerbaijan and Armenia and northern Iraq for a brief time.
  • 732 AD Battle Of Tours- At the Battle of Tours, the Franks under Charles Martel, defeated a Muslim expedition led by Adb-el-Rahman across the Pyrenees. This marked the furthest incursion of Muslim forces into Europe.
  • 749 AD Abu-Al Abbas Accepts A Public Oath- The Omayyad Caliphate was overthrown when Abu Al-Abbas, the great-grandson of Muhammad’s uncle, took the public oath as leader of the Abbasids. The Omayyads are then defeated at the Battle of the Zab River by the Abbasids. Nearly all members of the Ommayad clan are then murdered by the Abbasids.
  • 754 AD Pepin The Short- Pepin was the King of the Franks. Pope Stephen II sanctified him both as a king and as king of the Frankish Church. Pepin founded the Carolingian Dynasty.
  • 754 AD AL Mansur becomes ruler- With the death of Abu al-Abbas, al-Mansur became his successor. al-Mansur swiftly eliminated all threats to his rule and extended the power of the Abbasid Caliphate.
  • 775 – 785 AD Al-Mahdi Reigns- Al- Mahdi ruled the Abbasid Caliphate for ten years. These were years notable for the improvement of communications within the empire and for the founding of schools and towns. Al-Mahdi also encouraged the arts.
  • 780 – 809 AD Harun Al Rashid- Harun al-Rashid headed the Abbasid Caliphate from 786 to 809. Under his reign, the caliphate reached the height of its power. His court in Baghdad was the center of a rich world of artists, poets and musicians.
  • 794 AD Kyoto Founded- The Kyoto period in Japanese history began when the Emperor moved the capital to a site near that of present-day Kyoto. The period lasted until 1185.

WORLD HISTORY 800 – 900 A.D. Charlemagne- Emperor Of The West, Angkor Period, Mamun The Great, Treaty Of Verdun, Algebra Invented, Wu-Tsung Persecutes Buddhists, Danish Viking Sack London, Rurik Lead Viking Raids, Fujiwara Period, Macedonian Dynasty, Harold I King Of Norway, Alfred Great Victory Over Danes

  • 800 AD Charlemagne- Emperor Of The West- Charlemagne was crowned Emperor of the West by Pope Leo III on December 25th — Christmas Day — in St. Peters Church. Pope Leo allowed Charlemagne to clear himself of a series of charges. The coronation of Charlemagne represented an irrevocable breach between Constantinople and Rome.
  • 802 AD Angkor Period- The Angor Period began in 802, when Jayavarman II established his capital at Angor. Jayavarman united all of Cambodia, and achieved independence from Java.
  • 813 – 833 AD Mamun The Great- The caliphate reached its most glorious period under the rule of Mamun the Great. A house of knowledge was set up in Baghdad. There the great Greek and Roman works of antiquity were translated into Arabic.
  • 843 AD Treaty Of Verdun – Under the Treaty of Verdun, the Carolingian Kingdom of the Franks was divided into three parts. Louis II ruled the Frankish Kingdom east of the Rhine. Lothair I ruled northern Italy, part of France and Belgium; and Charles II (the Bald) ruled the western Frankish Empire, consisting of most of today’s France.
  • 820 AD Algebra Invented The Arabic scholar al-Khwarizmi set forth the branch of Alegebra. Al Khwarizmi derived his works from Hindu works as well as other earlier works.
  • 845 AD Wu-Tsung Persecutes Buddhists- During the reign of the Taoist Wu Tsung, other religions were persecuted. The Buddhists were among the persecuted, but had become so integral a part of China that the religion survived the persecution.
  • 851 AD Danish Viking Sack London- Danish vikings sailed up the Thames in 851 A.D. They sacked London and Canterbury but were defeated at Ockley by the King of the West Saxons.
  • 860 ADKhazar Kings Convert to Judaism- The Khazar kings convert to Judaism. A Jewish dynasty of kings presides over the Khazar kingdom until the 960s.
  • 862 AD Rurik Lead Viking Raids- Found Russia- The Viking chieftain, Rurik, led raids on Northern Russia. It is believed that in 862, he and his band called Varangians were invited to Novogrod to bring order to the area. This is said to mark the beginning of the Imperial Russian Period.
  • 866 – 1160 AD Fujiwara Period- The Fujiwara period began in Japan in 866. Fujiwaa Mototsune became the first civilian dictator. During this period important works of classic Japanese literature and art were produced.
  • 867 AD Basil Founds Macedonian Dynasty- Basil had his co-emperor Michael III murdered to become the sole ruler of the Byzantine Empire. Basil founded what became known as the Macedonian Dynasty which would last until 1076. This is considered the Golden Age of the Byzantines.
  • 872 AD Harold I King Of Norway- Harold I was responsible for the creation of modern Norway by deposing many of the petty chieftains to unify the country.
  • 878 AD Alfred Great Victory Over Danes- Alfred the Great won a major victory over the Danes in the Battle of Edington in Southern England. As a result of this battle, the Treaty of Wedmore was signed between Arthur and the Danes. it divided England into Northern and Southern sectors with London falling in Alfred’s Southern region.

WORLD HISTORY 900 – 1000 A.D. Five Dynasties, Treaty Of St. Clair-sur-Epte, Koryo Dynasty, Ahmad Ibn Buwayh Caliph, Otto I Defeats Magyars, Sung Dynasty, The Ghaznavids, Otto I Emperor, The Peace of God, Kingdom Of Ghana Defeats Saharan Berbers

  • 907 AD Five Dynasties Begin- The period between 907-959 was known as the period of Five Dynsties. During this period imperial control was largely limited to the Yellow River Basin.
  • 911 AD The Treaty Of St. Clair-sur-Epte- In 911 A.D., the Treaty of St. Clair-sur-Epte was signed. Under the terms of the treaty, the Kingdom of Normandy was established, Rollo the Viking became the first ruler, and he converted to Christianity.
  • 935 AD Koryo Dynasty Founded- The Koryo Dynasty was founded in 935 by Wang Kon who had united Korea. The Koryo Dynasty established a strong central government as well as a civil service. This dynasty remained in power until 1392.
  • 945 AD Ahmad Ibn Buwayh Caliph – A member of a Persian clan, Ahmad ibn Buwah entered Baghdad unopposed. He declared himself to be the new caliph. This begins the Buwayhid Dynasty that is to rule for 100 years.
  • 955 AD Otto I The Great Defeats Magyars Otto the Great defeated the Magyars in 955 A.D. at the Battle of Lechfeld. This ended 50 years of Magyar raids on Western Europe.
  • 960 AD Sung Dynasty Founded- The Sung Dynasty was founded by Kao Tsu. During his lifetime, Kao Tsu managed to reunite much of China. The Sung Dynasty is considered to mark the advent of modernity in China. It was period known for progressive social policies, as well as a productive period for art, poetry and philosophy.
  • 962 – 1886 AD The Ghaznavids- The Ghaznavids dynasty was founded by Subaktagin, a Turkish slave who converted to Islam. The dynasty established itself in what is now known as Afghanistan. The leader of the Ghaznavids on the death of his father became Mahmud of Ghanzni. A fervent Muslim, he expanded his rule to include most of Northern India.
  • 962 AD Otto I Emperor Of Rome- Otto the Great was crowned Holy Roman Emperor by Pope John XII. Otto ended the anarchy in Rome by soon appointing his own Pope. He revived the power of the Western Roman Empire.
  • 989 AD The Peace of God – The Peace of God was passed at the Council of Charroux. It was supported by Hugh Capet, King of France. The Peace of God attempted to reduce feudal warfare by limiting private wars to certain parts of the year, and by providing protection for noncombatants. The Peace used to the power of excommunication to enforce its stipulations.
  • 990 AD Kingdom Of Ghana Defeats Saharan Berbers- The Kingdom of Ghana defeated the Saharan Berber tribes of Lemtuna in 990. The Ghanians captured Audaghost, the Berber capital.

WORLD HISTORY 1000 – 1100 A.D. Basil II Defeats Bulgarians, Canute II Rules England, Boleslav-King Of Poland, Ommiad Caliphate Of Spain Dissolved, Byzantine Empress Poison Husband, Sejuk Turks Take Bagdhad, Battle Of Hasting, Anwratha – Burma United, Tower Of London, Kingdom Of Ghana, Alfonso VI Conquers Toledo, El Cid Takes Valencia, First Crusades

  • 1014 AD Basil II Defeats Bulgarians-The Byzantine Emperor Basil II routed the Bulgarians at the Battle of Cimbalugu. Basil killed most of the Bulgarian army, and then blinded 24,000 Bulgarian captives. The Bulgarians were forced to submit to Byzantine rule.
  • 1016 AD Canute II Rules All Of England- On the death of Ethelred II the King of England, Edmund II succeeded to the throne. Canute II, a Dane, was chosen by the Witan- the advisory council to the King. Canute II battled Edmund at Ashington and defeated him. This led to Caunute II being crowned King of all England.
  • 1025 AD Boleslav- First King Of Poland- Poland gained independence from the Holy Roman Empire when Boleslav I was crowned the first Polish King at Gniezno in 825. Poland quickly emerged as one of Europe’s most powerful nations, extending from the Bugthe to the Elbe and from the Danube River to the Baltic Sea.
  • 1031 AD The Ommiad Caliphate Of Spain Dissolved – After 30 years of anarchy, the Omayyad Caliphate of Spain dissolved on the death of Hisham III. Spain was divided into a number of small Muslim states.
  • 1034 AD Byzantine Empress Poison Husband The Byzantine Empress Zoe poisoned her husband, Romanus III. She went on to marry Michael IV of Paphiagonia and then reigned together with him until 1041.
  • 1055 AD Sejuk Turks Take Bagdhad- Seljuk Turks, under the command of Togrul, captured Baghdad. They ousted the Persian Buwayhid Dynasty. The Abbasides looked upon the Seljuks as liberators and supported them. The Seljuk Empire would reach it’s zenith under Malik Shah who expanded the Empire to the point that it seriously threatened the Byzantine Empire’s continued existence.
  • 1057 AD Anwratha – Burma United – Anawratha, the Burmese king of Paga, conquered the Mon Kingdom of Thaton. For the first time, all of Burma was under unified rule. Battle Of Hasting- At the Battle of Hastings, the Norman, William the Conqueror defeated Harold II, King of England. The victory led to the complete domination of England by the Normans. On December 25th, William was crowned King of England at Westminster Abbey.
  • 1066 AD Tower Of London Constructed- William the Conquerer began building the Tower of London in 1066. It stands to this day.
  • 1076 AD Kingdom Of Ghana Defeated- The Berber Almoravids conquered the Kingdom of Ghana. The capital Kumbi Saleh was sacked. The Ghanaian empire fell apart.
  • 1085 AD Alfonso VI Conquers Toledo- Alfonso VI, the Christian King of Leon and Castile, captured Toledo from the Almoravids and made it his capital.
  • 1094 AD El Cid Takes Valencia- Rodrigo Diaz de Vivar known as El Cid, captured the Moorish Kingdom of Valencia after a nine-month siege. Violating the terms of the surrender, El Cid had the Cadi ibn Djahaff burned alive.
  • 1096 – 1099 First Crusades- The First Crusade began with a call By Alexius I in 1095 for assistance from other Christian states to counter repeated attacks made by Seljuk Turks. He also decried Muslim control of the Holy Land. His call was echoed by the Pope. As many as 30,000 people responded and joined the Crusade. The Seljuk Muslims are easily defeated in Syria. In 1099, the Crusaders arrive in Jerusalem. They lay siege to the city, capture it and thoroughly sack it killing thousands of Muslims and Jews indiscriminately.

WORLD HISTORY 1100 – 1200 A.D. Battle of Tinchebray, Khmer Empire Reaches Peak, Henry V Dies, Alfonso I King Of Portugal, Second Crusade, Morrocco Conquered By Almohads, Eric IX Jedvardsson Defeats Finns, Notre Dame, Oxford Founded, Saladin Founds Ayyubid Dynasty, Henry II Invads Ireland, William The Lion, Frederick I Barbarossa – Lombard League, Streets Paved In Paris, Battle of Dannoura, Battle Of Hittin, Second Bulgarian Empire, Crusader Captures Acre, Richard The Lionhearted Dies

  • 1106 AD Battle of Tinchebray- An English war of succession came to an end at the Battle of Tinchebray, in Normandy. It began with the death of William II, King of England on August 2nd, 1100. Henry I (Beauclerc) seized the throne, but was opposed by his brother Robert II (Curthhose), of Normandy. Henry defeated Robert at Tinchebray and returned him in chains. Robert spent the rest of his life in prison.
  • 1113 AD Khmer Empire Reaches Peak – The Khmer Empire in present-day Cambodia was established in 600 and reached its peak under Suryavarman II. Under his leadership, the Khmer Empire was expanded to include most of the area consisting of modern-day Vietnam.
  • 1125 AD Henry V Dies Matilda Returns to England- Henry V, King of Germany and the Holy Roman Empire, died after leading an expedition against the French Louis VI. His widow, Matilda, returned to England where her father forced English nobles to accept her as his successor after the death of his son at sea. When Henry I, her father, died Stephen of Blois, Henry’s nephew, refused to accept Matilda’s rule and he seized power. This resulted in a ten-year war of succession.
  • 1143 AD Alfonso I King Of Portugal- Under the terms of the Treaty of Zamora in 1143, the independence of Portugal was recognized. Alfonso I became the first King.
  • 1147 AD Second Crusade – The Second Crusade was organized by Louis VII, King of Spain and Conrad III, King of Germany. The Crusade came to a disastrous end due to a lack of leadership and control. It ended with an aborted siege of Damascus.
  • 1147 AD Morrocco Conquered By Almohads – Morocco was conquered by Abd al-Mumin, the leader of the Berber Muslim Almohad Dynasty. This conquest brought to an end the Almoravid Dynasty. By 1152, Algeria was also brought under the control of the Almohads.
  • 1157 AD Eric IX Jedvardsson Defeats Finns- Eric IX (Jedvardsson) Christian King of Sweden, defeated the Finns. He then forced them to convert to Christianity.
  • 1163 AD Work Began On Notre Dame- One of the most notable gothic churches was begun in 1163- Notre Dame. The church was conceived by Maurice de Sully, bishop of Paris.
  • 1168 AD Oxford Founded- The school of Oxford was founded in 1168. After the founding of the University of Paris in 1200 Oxford became an offshoot of it.
  • 1171 AD Saladin Founds Ayyubid Dynasty- Saladin, ruler of Egypt, proclaimed the end of the Fatima dynasty that had ruled Egypt since 968. He declared himself Caliph of the new Ayyubid dynasty.
  • 1171 AD Henry II Launches Invasion of Ireland- Henry II, King of England responded to a request for help from Ireland’s deposed King Dermot MacMurrough, by sending forces to Warford. Henry was recognized as the ruler of Ireland by the Treaty of Windsor in 1171.
  • 1174 AD William The Lion Defeated- Henry II defeated William the Lion, King of Scotland at the siege of Alnwick Castle in 1174. William officially accepted Henry as the ruler of Scotland.
  • 1176 AD Frederick I Barbarossa Defeated By Lombard League- The Holy Roman Emperor, Frederick I (Barbossa) was decisively defeated by the Lombard League at Legano. Frederick was attempting to reassert his authority over northern Italy.
  • 1184 AD Streets Paved In Paris- The streets in front of the Louvre were paved. This marked the first time streets in Paris were paved.
  • 1185 AD Battle of Dannoura- The Japanese Tairo clan was decisively defeated by the Minamoto clan in a naval battle that took place off Dannoura. The child emperor Antoku, who had been held prisoner by the Taira, was killed in the battle. Japan entered the Kamakura period in the aftermath of the battle. It was a era marked by a clear division between the powerless imperial court and the dominant military government.
  • 1187 AD Battle Of Hittin- Christian forces from the Kingdom of Jerusalem attacked a caravan carrying the sister of Saladin. In retaliation, he began a holy war against the Crusaders. At the Battle of Hittim, he defeated a combined Christian army. He then laid siege to Jerusalem and captured it, although he did not sack the city after the conquest.
  • 1186 AD Second Bulgarian Empire- A successful revolt took place against the Byzantine rule of Bulgaria. This established the second Bulgarian empire which lasted until 1396.
  • 1192 Ad Crusader Captures Acre- Spurred by Saladin’s triumph, the Christians launch the Third Crusade, led by Richard the Lionhearted. Despite many difficulties, they reached the coastal area of the Holy Land and successfully captured the Acre fortress. Richard negotiated a truce with Saladin that ensured Christian access to holy sites in Jerusalem.
  • 1199 AD Richard The Lionhearted Dies- Richard the Lionhearted died of an arrow wound while besieging Chalus in Western France. Richard, ruler of England since 1189, had actually spent very little time there. Instead, he helped lead the Third Crusade. Richard had been imprisoned by the Holy Roman Emperor in 1193, but managed to purchase his freedom. He fought an on-going battle with Philip II of Normandy. While Richard was involved in affairs outside England, the land was administered for him by Jubert Walter.

WORLD HISTORY 1200 – 1300 A.D. University Of Paris, Fourth Crusade, Danish Empire, Crusaders Capture Constantinople, Genghis Khan, Las Navas de Tolosa Battle, Magna Carta, French English Battles, 6th Crusade Controls Jerusalem, Great Khan, Golden Bull Of Sicily, Use Of Rockets, Royal Charter For Coal Fields, Cordoba Taken From Moors, Nevsky Defeats Swedes, Jerusalem Recaptured By Muslims, Mameluke Dynasty, Provisions Of Oxford, Battle Of Ain Jalut, Iceland\Greenland Annexed, Louis IX Dies, Marco Polo, Hapsburg Dynasty, Kublia Khan, Chinese Attack On Japan, Denmark Limitation Of Power, Genoa Defeats Pisa, Swiss Confederation, Finland Conquered, Scottish Rebellion, Chinese Develop A Cannon

  • 1200 AD University Of Paris Founded -Phillip II, King of France, issued a charter to establish the University of Paris. The University offered a traditional liberal education.
  • 1202 AD Fourth Crusade- The Fourth Crusade began at the behest of Emperor Henry, King of Sicily. Pope Innocent III issued a call to European monarchs to participate in the Crusade. The call was answered primarily by the French baronage. The only way to reach Egypt — the objective of the Crusade — was by sea. The Crusaders asked the Venetians to transport them, but the Venetians demanded 85,000 marked and half the booty. When the impossibility of raising that sum became clear, the Venetians agreed to transport the Crusaders, if the Crusaders would promise to capture the Christian city of Zara. Pope Innocent, who had opposed the action, excommunicated the Crusaders.
  • 1202 AD Danish Empire- Valdemar II succeeded to the Danish throne upon the death of his brother. Valdemar expanded the Danish Empire to include Northern Germany.
  • 1204 AD Crusaders Capture Constantinople – Constantinople was captured for the first time in 1204. Soldiers of the Fourth Crusade seized the city on April 12 after a six-month siege. They mercilessly sacked the city.
  • 1206 AD Genghis Khan In 1206, Temujin was proclaimed Genghis Khan. Khan established the Mongolian capital at Karakorum. He expanded the empire to include to much of Northern China and Korea. In 1220, he turned his attentions to Persia.
  • 1212 AD Las Navas de Tolosa Battle- At the Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa, forces of the Christian Spanish King Alfonso VIII of Leon and Castile were victorious against Muslim Almohades. This marked the beginning of the end of Muslim rule in Iberia.
  • 1215 AD Magna Carta- In 1215, a group of determined barons forced King John of England to sign the Magna Carta. Under the terms of Magna Carta, the British aristocracy was granted the rights of trial by jury and protection from arbitrary acts by the King.
  • 1217 AD French English Battles- With the death of King John, civil war soon divided England. The French with prince Louise intervened and occupied part of England. The French were defeated by the English at the Battle of Lincoln and then lost their fleet at the naval Battle of Sandwich. They were forced to withdraw.
  • 1228 AD 6th Crusade Controls Jerusalem- The Sixth Crusade, led by Frederick II, managed to gain control of Jerusalem through diplomatic means. Frederick signed a treaty with Malik al-Kamil, the nephew of Saladin. Under the terms of the treaty Malik ceded Bethlehem, Jerusalem, Nazareth and a corridor to the port of Acre to Frederick. Frederick had himself crowned King of Jerusalem at the Church of the Holy Sepulchre on March 18th 1228.
  • 1229 AD Great Khan- Genghis Khan died in 1227. By that time, he had captured much of the Persian Empire, and had led raids as far away as the Steppes of Russia. Genghis Khan was succeeded by his third son, Ogadai. Ogadai, whose title became ‘the Great Khan’ subdued the Chin dynasty in northern China, and ravaged much of Eastern Europe.
  • 1231 AD Golden Bull Of Sicily- The Golden Bull of Sicily was issued in 1212 by Frederick I. It brought about a complete reorganization of Sicily. More importantly, it constituted a complete promulgation of a code of laws for the subjects of Sicily.
    1232 AD 1st Known Use Of Rockets- In the 1232 the Chinese used rockets in battle for the first time. This demonstrated the military use of gunpowder. From this moment on the use of gunpowder spread rapidly around the world.
  • 1232 AD Royal Charter For Coal Fields- A royal charter was issued in 1239 for the development of the coal fields in New Castle. This began the rapid development of coal as a source of energy.
  • 1236 AD Cordoba Taken From Moors- In 1236, Ferdinand III captured Cordoba from the Moors. By 1248, after the capture of Seville, only Granada was left in Moorish hands.
  • 1240 AD Nevsky Defeats Swedes- In 1240, Alexander Nevsky a Russian prince, defeated the Swedes, near St. Petersburg. The Swedes had invaded at the request of Pope Gregory IX, who wanted to punish the Orthodox Russians for helping the Finns avoid conversion to Latin Catholicism.
  • 1244 AD Jerusalem Recaptured By Muslims- Muslim mercenaries under the direction of the Egyptian pasha Khwarzmi, captured Jerusalem. This leads to the Sixth Crusade, which did not achieve its goals. Egypt controlled Jerusalem until 1517, and it remained in Muslim hands until 1918.
  • 1250 AD Seventh Crusade Ended First Mameluke Dynasty Founded- The Seventh Crusade met defeat at the hands of Egyptian forces led by the new Caliph, Turanshah, at the Battle of Fairskur on April 6th 1250. Turanshah captures Louis IX whom he released only after the payment of a ransom. The actions of the new caliph troubled many of the Egyptian leaders who had supported him. They turned to the Mamelukes to overthrow Turanshah. The Mamelukes went on to rule Egypt until 1517.
  • 1258 AD Provisions Of Oxford- In 1258, a crisis developed in England over a new series of taxes levied by Henry III. Rebellious barons led by Simon de Montfor demanded a program of reforms be enacted by the “Mad Parliament”. There would be a council of fifteen who would have veto power over the actions of the king. The council was to meet three times each year.
  • 1260 AD Battle Of Ain Jalut- The advance of the Mongols on the Muslim world was stopped at the Battle of Ain Jalut, fought in Palestine between the Mamelukes (led by the ex-slave Baybars) and Julegu Khan, who had captured Damascus. In the course of the battle, the Mongol general Ket Buqa was killed and thus the Mamelukes carried the day.
  • 1262 AD Norway Annexes Iceland and Greenland- Norway’s King Haakon IV intervened in a civil war in Iceland. The result: annexation by Norway of both Iceland and Greenland.
  • 1270 AD Louis IX Dies- Louis IX died in 1270 while on the Eighth Crusade. His reign was marked by a huge expansion of royal power. The King’s power increased at the expense of both the Church as well as local communal movements. The royal justice system was also greatly expanded. This was a period marked by material and cultural advances in France.
  • 1271 AD Marco Polo- In 1271, Marco Polo — accompanied by his father — set off for China. They arrived in the court of the Great Khan, where Khan took the European visitors into his service. Polo became intimately acquainted with all parts of China. When he returned to Europe after 15 years of service to the Khan, he wrote the Book of Various Experiences about his time in Asia, that garnered wide readership in Europe.
  • 1273 AD Hapsburg Dynasty Established- The great Interregnum ended. It had been in existence since 1254 when the last Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire died. The new Emperor was Rudolf I of the Hapsburgs. In 1278, the Hapsburgs gained control over Austria. Thus began a dynasty that lasted until 1918.
  • 1280 AD Kublia Khan- Kublai Khan, the grandson of Genghis Khan, founded the Yuan dynasty in China. The site of present-day Peking became his capital. Khan completed the conquest of China becoming the first non-Chinese to rule that land. Kublai Khan’s empire stretched from China to Arabia and Eastern Europe- the largest the world has ever known.
  • 1281 AD Failed Chinese Attack On Japan- A large Mongolian armada that may have number 145,000 men landed at Hakozaki Bay. The Japanese were waiting for them and repulsed the attack. A typhoon then destroyed the Mongol fleet, leaving their army to be killed or enslaved.
  • 1282 King Of Denmark Accepts Limitation Of Power- Danish nobility forced Eric V to sign a Danish “Magna Carta”. This document established a Danish parliament that met once each year. The King was made subordinate to the Parliament.
  • 1284 AD Genoa Defeats Pisa- The Republic of Genoa fought the rival Italian city state of Pisa. Pisa was defeated at a naval battle off Meloria. Genoa then enjoyed a golden age, while Pisa was occupied by a series of other city states.
  • 1291 AD Swiss Confederation Founded- Three Swiss cantons, Uri, Schwyz, and Unterwalden formed the League of the Three Forest Cantons in 1291. The League was established for mutual defense. The cantons made no claims of independence, but this League constituted the basis for the ultimate establishment of the Swiss state.
  • 1293 AD Finland Conquered by Sweden- Eric IX (Jedvardsson) Christian King of Sweden, defeated the Finns. He then forced them to convert to Christianity
  • 1298 AD Scottish Rebellion Against English- The English under Edward I won a decisive victory over the Scots at the Battle of Falkirk. The Scots had rebelled under the leadership of William Wallace. The English used long bows successfully to subdue to the Scots and end the rebellion.
  • 1298 AD Chinese Develop A Cannon- The Chinese developed the first prototype canon. While the Chinese were at the forefront of the early use of gunpowder, it was the Europeans who soon developed pistols and other guns that gave them a decisive military advantage.

WORLD HISTORY 1300 – 1400 A.D. Philip IV, Avignonese Papacy, Battle Bannockburn, Great European Famine, Swiss Victory, Isabelle Desposes Husband, Ottoman Empire, Hundred Year War, French Fleet Annihilated, Battle Of Crecy, Black Death, University Of Kracow, Battle In Poitiers, Treaty of Calias, Chu Yuan-Chang, Ming Dynasty, Hundred Year War, War of Chioggia, Peasants Revolt, Portugal Independent, Union of Kalamar

  • 1302 AD Philip IV Calls Meeting Of The Estates General- Philip IV of France called together representatives of the nobility, townspeople and clergy for the first time. The gathering became known as the Estates-General. Philip’s main purpose in convening this group was to garner support against Pope Boniface, whose bull ‘Unam Sanctum’ proclaimed Papal supremacy over national leaders.
  • 1309 AD Avignonese Papacy- Pope Clement V, who was heavily influenced by Philip IV of France, took up residency in Avignon, France. Clement rescinded Boniface’s pronouncements against Philip. Until 1378, Popes continued to reside in Avignon.
  • 1314 AD Battle Bannockburn- Scotland- The Scots, led by Robert the Bruce, routed a larger force led by Edward II, King of England. The two armies met at the Battle of Bannockburn, which took place in central Scotland. The Scottish victory insured Scotland’s independence for the next three centuries.
  • 1314 – 1317 AD Great European Famine – The worst famine to strike Europe occurred between 1314-1317. It was widespread, affecting all of Northern Europe. Eyewitness accounts tell of the poor and hungry resorting to eating cats and dogs.
  • 1315 AD Swiss Victory – Swiss forces, led by the canton of Schwyz, gained a victory over Leopold I (Hapsburg) Duke of Austria at the Battle of Morgarten. The victory led to an expanded Swiss alliance. By 1353 Switzerland was established.
  • 1326 AD Isabelle Desposes Husband England was invaded by the French wife of King Edward II – Isabelle. She was supported by French troops and gained control of England as Edward II was forced to flee London. Isabelle arranged for her son Edward III to be crowned King.
  • 1326 AD The Ottoman Empire Founded- The Ottoman Empire was established when the Byzantine fortress of Bursa falls after a nine-year siege to the forces of the Osmali Turks, under Osman. The same year, Osman died and was succeeded by his son Orkhan who ruled until 1360. Under Orkahn, the Empire expanded to include central Anatolia and Thrace.
  • 1337 AD Hundred Year War- The Hundred Years War began when Philip VI contested the English claim to Normandy and other northern provinces. At the same time, Edward III contested Philip’s legitimacy based on the fact that his mother was the daughter of Philip IV. He demanded the crown of France. Edward won the support of many Flemish towns. He ravaged the French countryside, but at first fought no decisive battles.
  • 1340 AD French Fleet Annihilated- The French navy was destroyed at the Battle of Sluis which took place off the coast of Flanders. The victory gave England naval supremacy in the English Channel.
  • 1340 AD Battle Of Crecy – A smaller British force under the command of Edward III defeated a French army under the command of Philip VI. This marked the first use of cannon and small arms in battle in Europe.
  • 1347 – 1353 AD The Black Death- The Black Death (bubonic plague) that spread throughout Europe between 1347 and 1353 was the worse natural disaster in European history. It is estimated that of a population of 75 million people, between 19 to 35 million died. The plague was spread by rats infested by infected fleas. The plague originated in the East. Ships carrying infected vermin came to the island of Sicily. The disease spread northward throughout Europe. It took two hundred years for Europe’s population to recover. One of the most bizarre results of the plague was the large-scale outbreak of anti-semitism. Jews were accused of causing the plague. Over 60 Jewish communities were entirely wiped out in Germany alone.
  • 1348 AD University Of Kracow Founded The University of Kracow was founded in Poland. Its sponsor was Casimir III the King of Poland.
  • 1356 AD Battle In Poitiers- At the Battle of Poiters, the Black Prince of Wales Edward defeated the French. In the course of the battle, the French king, John II, was taken prisoner and brought to England. This resulted in civil chaos in France.
  • 1360 AD Treaty of Calias- With both England and France exhausted by the war, they signed the Treaty of Calias on October 24th 1360. Under its terms, John II of France was ransomed and Edward III renounced his claim to the French throne.
  • 1368 AD Chu Yuan-Chang, A Chinese Buddhist Monk Founds Ming Dynasty- A large Mongolian armada that may have numbered 145,000 men, landed at Hakozaki Bay. The Japanese were waiting for them and repulsed the attack. A typhoon then destroyed the Mongol fleet, leaving the army to be killed or enslaved.
  • 1372 AD Revival Of Hundred Year War off La Rochelle- The Hundred Years War resumed when the French fleet defeated the British fleet off La Rochelle y France. The French were helped by a powerful fleet from Castile. On June 27, 1375 the French and English signed the Truce of Bruges. Under its terms, the British presence in France was limited to Calia, Brest, Bordeaux and Bayonne.
  • 1381 AD War of Chioggia- The Venetians and the Genoans fought in the War of Chioggia. The Genoans blockaded the Venetians after seizing Chioggia. The Venetian fleet under Vittoria Pisano defeated the Genoans. This began the golden age of Venice.
  • 1381 AD The Peasants Revolt- A rebellion led by Wat Tyler created anarchy throughout England. 30,000 rioters converged on London. Once there, they burned a number of public buildings and beheaded the archbishop of Canterbury. King Richard made promises to meet the rioters demands, however the next day Tyler was killed and the revolt was put down.
  • 1385 AD Portugal Free from Spain- The Portugese fought Castile at the Battle of Ajubarrota. The Portugese were led by John the Great. His victory insured the independence of Portugal.
  • 1397 AD Union of Kalamar- Magaret Queen of Sweden completed the conquest of Denmark and Norway. She then went on to form the Kalamar League, which became a Union of all three countries.

WORLD HISTORY 1400 – 1450 A.D. Kingdom of Maracca, Mongols Invade Syria, Mongol Empire Divided, Battle of Tannenberg, Battle of Agincourt, Henry the Navigator, Chinese Capital- Peking, Treaty of Troyes, Battle of Cravant, France Invades Italy, James I Freed, Joan of Arc Frees Orleans, Joan of Arc- Burned Alive, Angkor Sacked, Peace Treaty of Arras, Inca Dynasty, Battle of Varna, Printing Press

  • 1400 AD Kingdom of Maracca was Founded-The Kingdom of Malacca was founded on the Malay peninsular in the current day Indonesia. Malacca, which was founded by Paramesvara, soon became the leading maritime power in South East Asia.
  • 1400 AD Mongols Invade Syria- In 1400 the Mongol conqueror Tameralne invaded Syria after devastating Georgia and Russia. The next year he laid waste to Aleppo Damascus and Baghdad. In 1402 Tamerlane then went on to defeat the Ottoman sultan at the battle of Angora.
  • 1405 AD Mongol Empire Divided- Tamerlane, the leader of the Mongols, died suddenly while preparing to attack Ming China. With his death the Mongol Empire rapidly fell apart.
  • 1410 AD Battle of Tannenberg – The Poles and the Lithuanians defeated German Knights at the Battle of Tannenberg on July 15th 1410. Despite the victory, at the Peace of Thorn signed in 1411, the Poles failed to gain access to the sea.
  • 1415 AD English forces destroy French at Battle of Agincourt The British decisively defeated the French at the battle of Agincourt on October 25th. The British archers, under the command of Henry V, were the key to the British victory over the French. Five French counts, 90 barons and over 5,000 French knights were killed in the battle and 1,000 were taken prisoner. As a result of the English victory the French nobility was shattered and the feudal system was destroyed. Normandy lay open to English reconquering.
  • 1415 AD Henry the Navigator- Takes Ceuta – The Portuguese explorer and prince, Henry the Navigator captured Ceuta, in today’s Morocco from the Marind dynasty. This begins Portuguese conquest of parts of Africa.
  • 1420 AD Chinese Capital- Peking- The Second Ming Emperor moved the capital of China from Nanking to Peking.
  • 1420 AD Treaty of Troyes- The French under Philippe and England under Henry V signed the Treaty of Troyes. Under the terms of the treaty Henry became the the king of both France and England. Henry was allowed to occupy all the land to the Loire.
  • 1423 AD Battle of Cravant – In 1422 England resumed its war with France. In August 1423 French and Scottish forces were decisively defeated by the forces of England under the command of John Plantagent who was acting as regent for the infant Henry VI.
  • 1424 AD France Invades Italy- Charles VIII King of France began the Italian Wars by invading Italy in September 1494. In February 1495 Naples surrendered to Charles. He temporarily became the King of Naples. Alexander VI organizes the Holy League which included Spain to repel the French from Italy. In July 1495 the French lost the Battle of Fornovo and Charles was forced to flee Italy.
  • 1424 AD James I Freed- King of Scotland After being held in English captivity from the age of 11, Scotland’s James I was freed at the age of 29. The earl of Somerset remited 10,000 marks to ransom James as a dowry for his daughter Jane. Jane and James were married in February 1424. In May James was crowned King of Scotland.
  • 1429 AD Joan of Arc Frees Orleans – War between France and England continued on and off, despite various agreements to cease. In 1428 the English began to beseige the Orleans. Joan of Arc a young girl from Lorrain began to have visions and claim to hear voices. She convinced the French dauphin to provide her with a small army and went on to liberate Orleans. This changed the very nature of the conflict giving the French a new sense of confidence in their conflict with England and reinvigorating the French monarchy. Joan convinced the people that the dauphin was the legitimate son of Charles VI and he was crowned King at Reims on July 17, 1429.
  • 1431 AD Joan of Arc- Burned Alive- Joan of Arc entered Comiegne outside Paris and was taken prisoner. The British held Joan in prison in a tower in Rouen.Charles VII made no effort to assist her. The English in 1431 turn Joan over to the former bishop of the of Beauvais Pierre Cauchon on the assurance she would be convicted of treason against God. She was convicted and burned to death at the stake on May 30, 1431.
  • 1431 AD Angkor Sacked – Angkor, the capital of the Khmer, was captured and sacked by the Thais. The Khmer Empire was forced to move its capital to the present site of the Cambodian capital Phnom Penh.
  • 1435 AD Peace Treaty of Arras -In 1435, Duke Philip of Burgundy became weary of his alliance with the English. He signed a peace treaty with Charles VI which recognized Charles as the one king of France. Charles promised in return to punish the murders of Philip’s father. The English did not accept the peace treaty and warfare continued. Charles and Philip fought together and liberated Paris from the English. A truce then ensued between Britain and France that lasted 13 years.
  • 1438 AD Inca Dynasty Founded- The Inca Dynasty that ruled Peru until 1553 was founded in 1438. Its founder is said to have been Pachacutec. He rapidly expanded the empire.
  • 1444 AD Battle of Varna- The Ottoman forces fought a constant series of battles along its Hungarian border. Murad the Ottoman sultan decided to end the strife once and for all. He attacked Belgrade, the chief fortress on the Hungarian border. He was repulsed from Belgrade. Encouraged by their victories the Christians declared a new Crusade against the Ottomans, whose goal was to drive them from Europe. The Christian armies were led by Hunyadi who acheived two important victories, the first at the battle of Hermanstadt, and then at the battle of Nissa in which the Ottomans are driven from Bulgaria.
  • 1450 AD Printing Press Invented- In 1450, Johannes Guttenberg invented the printing press. The invention of the press revolutionized communication and education, allowing the development of newspapers, as well as reasonably priced books. The first product of the press was the Guttenberg Bible.

WORLD HISTORY 1450 – 1500 A.D. Battle of Castillon, Constantinople Falls, Byzantine Empire, Treaty of Lodi, War of the Roses, Cape Verde Islands, Battle of Towton Moors, Battle of Tewkesbury,Kingdom of Anman,Ivan III the Great,Treaty of Picquinty, Charles the Bald Killed, Cabot Claims North America, Vasco de Gama, Vasco De Gama lands in India, Da Vinci -The Last Supper, Christopher Columbus, NewFoundland Discovered, Treaty of Alcacovas, Treaty of Constantinople, Botticielli -The Birth of Venus, Dias Circles South Africa, Portuguese in Angola, Columbus Sails New World, Jews Driven From Spain, Moors Driven out of Spain, Columbus Discovers America, Columbus’ Second Voyage, Treaty of Tordesillas

  • 1453 AD Battle of Castillon-Charles VI became the first king to maintain a standing army, when he created a small French standing army. Knowing that the English were divided Charles decided to attack and reclaim Normandy. His attacks met little resistance. The English sent a fresh army led by Talbot against Charles, but at the battle of Chatillon the English were decisively defeated and the Hundred Years War came to an end.
  • 1453 AD Constantinople Falls to Forces of Muhammad II- The Byzantine Empire came to an end when the forces of Muhammad II captured Constantinople. Muhammad’s forces had been kept at bay by an iron chain that kept his ship away. He brought 70 small ships overland. In addition Muhammad had 250,000 troops and a 1,200 pound cannon that breached the wall of Constantinople. When the walls were breached on May 29th the city fell and over a thousand years of Byzantine rule ended.
  • 1454 AD Treaty of Lodi -Under the term of the Treaty of Lodi hostilities ended between Venice, Milan and Florence. The peace treaty was reached due to the efforts of Pope Nicholas V.
  • 1455 AD War of the Roses Begun – The War of the Roses began in 1455. The war was a civil war between the houses of Lancaster and York. The war was limited to English nobility and involved few of the populace. The first battle of the war was the Battle of St Albans which took place near London. At that battle the Yorkist defeated the Royalist forces.
  • 1456 AD Cape Verde Islands Discovered – Cape Verde Islands off the African coast near Dakar was discovered by Alivse da Cadamosto who was employed in the service of Henry the Navigator. The islands were soon settled by the Portuguese who began to use it for the slave trade.
  • 1461 AD Battle of Towton Moors-War of Roses- The Royalist who wore red roses to battle were defeated by the Yorkist wearing white roses at the Battle of Towton Moors. The battle which was the bloodiest of the war, resulted in Edward being crowned Edward IV King of England.
  • 1471 AD Battle of Tewkesbury- The War of the Roses continued to wage. Edward married Elizabeth Woodville who had no money or rank. Edward handed out titles and money liberally so much so that he aroused the jealousy of the Earl of Warwick. Warwick arranged the ouster of Edward and the return of King Henry. When Warwick was killed in the battle of Barnet Henry was returned to jail, where he was killed immediately. Margaret, Henry’s wife, continued the struggle, but at the Battle of Tewkesbury Margaret’s son was killed and she was captured.
  • 1471 AD Kingdom of Anman Founded- Le Thanh-ton leading the Kingdom of Annam captured Vijaya the capital of the Cham, in present day Vietnam.
  • 1472 AD Ivan III the Great – In 1472 Ivan III- The Great, married the neice of the last Byzantine Emperor. The marriage, which took place ten years into his rule, increased Ivans prestige and helped him unify the various Russian principalities.
  • 1475 AD Treaty of Picquinty England’s Edward IV invaded France in support of the Burgundians. Edward was bought off by a payment and the promise of an annual allowance by Louus XI under the terms of the Treaty of Picquinty.
  • 1477 AD Charles the Bald Killed – The Battle of Nancy is won by Swiss pikement fighting for Louis XI. Charles the Bald, the last of the Burgundy claimants to the throne, is killed in the battle. This effectively ended the incessant battles for the French crown.
  • 1479 AD Treaty of Alcacovas Under the treaty of Alcacovas Portugal abandoned its claim to the Castillian throne as well as its claim to the Canary Islands. The Spanish recognized the Portuguese primacy in Azores islands as well the North and West African coasts.
  • 1480 AD Treaty of Constantinople – The 15 year war between the Ottomans and Venice ended with the signing of the Treaty of Constantinople. Under the terms of the treaty Venice was forced to cede cities along the Albanian coast to the Ottomans. Furthermore the Venetians were forced to pay for the right to trade in the Black Sea.
  • 1485 AD Botticielli Paints The Birth of Venus -In 1485 The Birth of Venus was painted by Sandor Botticielli in Florence. It was Botticeilli’s most famous work. Botticielli also illustrated Dante’s Divana Commedia and worked on the Sistine Chapel
  • 1487 AD Dias Circles South Africa – Bartholomeu Dias the Portuguese explorer was blown off course and around the Cape of Good Hope. He became the first European explorer to circle Southern Africa.
  • 1491 AD Portuguese in Angola Portuguese explorers establish an embassy at Mbanza the capital of the Bantu State in the present Angola. The Kongo ruler converts to Catholicism.
  • 1492 AD Columbus Sets Sails For New World – Isabella, Queen of Spain financed the voyage of Christopher Columbus. His goal was to find a sea route to the Orient by sailing westward. He set sail on August 3, 1492 in his flagship the Santa Maria with 52 men aboard. Also sailing was the smaller Pinta and Nina. On October 12th land is sighted.
  • 1492 AD Jews Driven From Spain -The Jews of Spain were ordered out of Spain by July 31, 1492. Some Jews accept the cross and stayed, while over 100,000 left Spain, many traveling to the Ottoman Empire, while some settled in Portugal.
  • 1492 AD Moors Driven out of Spain -On January 2, 1492 Granada surrendered to Isabella and Ferdinand. Granada was the last Muslim Kingdom in Spain and this marked the final expulsion of the Moors from Spain.
  • 1492 AD Columbus Discovers America -In 1492, Columbus set sail from Spain to discover a westward passage to the Orient. His trip was financed by King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella. On October 12th, after several fearful weeks at sea, Columbus finally set foot on dry land. He landed at San Salvador.
  • 1493 AD Columbus’ Second Voyage – After Columbus returns to Spain with strange animals, a live Indian and other unsusual items Queen Isabella grants Columbus enormous priviledges. He is sent back with 1,500 men and a fleet of 17 ships as the governor of the new land.
  • 1494 AD Treaty of Tordesillas – The Treaty of Tordesillas was signed which divided the world between Portuguese and Spanish lands. The Spanish received all of the land to the West and the Portuguese to the East. This gave Portugal Africa while Spain received all of the new world with the exception of Brazil.
  • 1497 AD John Cabot Discovers NewFoundland- John Cabot together with his son Sebastian discovered Newfoundland. He claims it for England.
  • 1498 AD Christopher Columbus Sets Sail for Third Voyage -In 1498 Christopher Columbus set sail for his third voyage to the New World. In the course of the voyage he discovered Trinidad. In addition he apparently landed in South America.
  • 1498 AD Da Vinci paints The Last Supper- In 1498 Leonardo Da Vinci painted his most famous mural, The Last Supper. The mural depicts the last meal of Christ before being incarcerated.
  • 1498 AD Vasco de Gama Sails to India -Vasco De Gama, the Portuguese explorer, arrived in India. He established a trading post, thus creating a new trade route between Europe and the East.
  • 1498 AD Vasco De Gama lands in India -Following up on the discovery by Dias of the Cape of Good Hope, Portuguese explorer Vasco da Gama sets sail for India. In 1498, da Gama reached India.
  • 1498 AD Cabot Claims North America For Great Britain -On June 24th, John Cabot, sailing on behalf of King Henry of England, sighted the coast of New Foundland. He claimed lands for England.

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